This day in 1885: Anniversary of the hanging of Louis Riel

Métis leader Louis Riel (centre) surrounded by councillors of the Métis Legislative Assembly of Assinaboia.

Métis leader Louis Riel (centre) surrounded by councillors of the Métis Legislative Assembly of Assinaboia.

ON NOVEMBER 16, 1885, the British colonial power executed the great Métis leader Louis Riel. Riel had been charged and found guilty of high treason after the Métis were defeated at the Battle of Batoche in May of that year. The execution of Louis Riel was intended as an assault on the consciousness of the Métis nation, but was unsuccessful in putting an end to their fight for their rights and dignity as a nation. The struggle of the Métis to affirm their right to be and exercise control over their political affairs continues to this day.

The two great uprisings of the Métis, the Red River Uprising (1869-1870) and North West Uprising (1885) were not isolated events but took place at a time when the First Nations and the Quebec nation were also striving to affirm their nationhood, and at a time of revolutionary ferment in Europe. The Métis’ uprisings represented a response to the colonial project that sought to reproduce the British state in North America and block the legitimate aspirations of the nations that comprised Canada.

The British North America Act of 1867 and the federal government’s purchase of Rupert’s Land from the Hudson’s Bay Company in 1869-1870, juxtaposed with the decline of the traditional Métis economy based on the buffalo hunt, forced the Métis to engage in a power struggle with the colonial authorities and negotiate Manitoba’s entry into the Confederation after the establishment of a Legislative Assembly. The spirit that motivated Riel and the members of the provisional government at the time is contained in the Declaration of the Inhabitants of Rupert’s Land and the Northwest that affirms the sovereignty of the Métis over their lands. The latter also refused to recognize the authority of Canada, “[…], which presumes to have the right to come and impose on us a form of government even more incompatible with our rights and our interests […].”

The Manitoba Act, which established that province, was voted on and passed in the federal Parliament in May 1870. The government wasted no time in exerting control over its new territory as evidenced by the Wolesley military expedition later that year – which led to Riel fleeing to the U.S. for fear of his safety — the creation of the Northwest Mounted Police (1873) and the Indian Act (1876). With the national policy he had been promoting since 1878, Prime Minister John A. Macdonald championed the colonization of the west and the development of agriculture. With the help of the Oblates (lay members of the Catholic church affiliated with a monastic community), the authorities sought to settle the Métis and force them to adopt an agricultural lifestyle. Facing an existence within this rigid framework and under pressure from land speculators, some Métis sold the land that had been granted to them and settled in Saskatchewan.

This was a period when nationalism was in the air. The events in Manitoba alerted Quebeckers to the fragility of the Métis’ situation, while the abolition of the teaching of French in New Brunswick in 1871 indicated the need for organization. National organizations such as the Saint-Jean-Baptiste Society to defend the rights and interests of Francophones spread across the continent with the waves of migration from the St. Lawrence valley. The National Convention of Montreal in 1874 and the Saint Jean Baptiste celebrations in Quebec in 1880 and Windsor in 1883 brought together delegations from all of French America in a strong show of the vitality of the “French-Canadian family.” Acadians held their first convention in 1881 where they held a celebration and adopted a national doctrine.

Métis leaders, under the sway of the Church at that time, did not rock the boat. In the aftermath of the Red River resistance, the Saint-Jean-Baptiste Association of Manitoba was founded in Saint-Boniface, Manitoba. Its vice-president was none other than Louis Riel. This association included in its infancy as many French Canadians as Francophone Métis.

However, aware of their distinct identity, Métis leaders wished to forge their own nationalism. Riel would come to articulate a Métis nationalism, with its own holidays and national symbols. This process would culminate in the creation of the Métis National Council at Batoche in September 1884, to promote the development of their political consciousness.

The Métis once again took up arms to affirm their nationhood and right to be in the North West Rebellion of 1885. For three days between May 9 and May 12, 1885, 250 Métis fought valiantly against 916 Canadian Forces at the Battle of Batoche but were defeated and Riel surrendered.

Macdonald and his cabinet took a hard line with respect to Riel and his compatriots. Riel was tried in Regina over five days in July 1885. After half an hour’s deliberation he was found guilty of treason by the jury, which recommended mercy. Nevertheless, Judge Hugh Richardson sentenced him to death. From September 1885 to October 1886, Riel and several of his comrades, all indigenous, would be condemned to hang.

While times have changed, the Canadian state has inherited the colonial power and it persists in the aim of negating the nationhood of the Métis, First Nations and Quebec. The proud history of the Métis and their fight to affirm their rights and nationhood is not some historical artifact gathering dust, but continues to gleam brightly in the light of the present day. The fight to affirm rights that belong to people by virtue of their being human is precisely the fight for modern, human-centred arrangements. Louis Riel’s life epitomized the fight for the recognition of rights on a modern basis.

Louis Riel’s life is an important legacy that is as relevant as ever at this time when the Canadian state is doing its utmost to negate the rights of the Métis, First Nations and the Quebec nation, as well as the workers, women, youth, national minorities and all the collectives in the society, all in the name of security, balance, austerity and other phony high ideals.

Source: TML Weekly Information Project, November 16, 2013, No. 45.

Postscript

The following images and captions have been added to the original article.

The Battle of Fish Creek (also known as the Battle of Tourond's Coulée ), fought April 24, 1885 at Fish Creek, Saskatchewan, was a major Métis victory over the colonial forces attempting to quell Louis Riel's North-West Rebellion. Although the reversal was not decisive enough to alter the ultimate outcome of the conflict, it was convincing enough to persuade Sir Major General Frederick Middleton to temporarily halt his advance on Batoche, where the Métis would later make their final stand. Middleton was the newly-appointed British head of the colonial militia (1884-1890); he had just completed his 10th year as Commandant and Secretary of the Royal Military College at Sandhurst and had fought in India, Burma and New Zealand. Middleton is knighted by Queen Victoria and paid a bonus of $20,000 by Parliament for his crimes. | Lithograth by Fred Curzon, 1885, Archives Canada

The Battle of Fish Creek (also known as the Battle of Tourond’s Coulée ), fought April 24, 1885 at Fish Creek, Saskatchewan, was a major Métis victory over the colonial forces attempting to quell Louis Riel’s North-West Rebellion. Although the reversal was not decisive enough to alter the ultimate outcome of the conflict, it was convincing enough to persuade Sir Major General Frederick Middleton to temporarily halt his advance on Batoche, where the Métis would later make their final stand. Middleton was the newly-appointed British head of the colonial militia (1884-1890); he had just completed his 10th year as Commandant and Secretary of the Royal Military College at Sandhurst and had fought in India, Burma and New Zealand. Middleton is knighted by Queen Victoria and paid a bonus of $20,000 by Parliament for his crimes. | Lithograth by Fred Curzon, 1885, Archives Canada

General Gabriel Dumont, elected president of the Métis during the 1870s in Riel’s absence, and their great military leader.  Together with the Cree, the Métis fight with great skill and tactics, courage and spirit in defence of their rights against 6,000 fully-armed, British-commanded, regular and irregular troops and police, winning several battles.  After the final, decisive, four-day Battle of Batoche between May 8-12 1885, where the Métis, out of ammunition, resort to firing pebbles from their guns until forced to retreat, Gabriel Dumont escapes to the US, where he will teach school in Buffalo, NY. Dumont explains: “What contributed greatly to the confusion of our soldiers, was that they were refused all religious aid (from the Catholic Church), for themselves, their wives and their children!!”  After 1885, Batoche becomes “sacred ground” to the Métis. Stories of the resisters’ heroism, of old men sacrificing their lives to save young men, of Madeleine Dumont comforting the women and children, and of homes being burned and pillaged remain within the Métis community.  Today it is the leaders of the resistance – Riel, Dumont, Poundmaker – who are remembered while John A. Macdonald’s name is equated with political, financial and moral corruption: youth are named by their parents in honour of them; monuments have been built to them in Winnipeg and other locales; and even their descendants, such as John Campbell, a Métis youth who died at Batoche in 1973 and Patsy Fineday and her brother Sockeye Fineday (descendents of the warrior Fine Day) who died in 1978, continued their battle.  Since 1970, the modern celebration at Batoche, during the last week in July, has drawn thousands of Métis from across the Métis Homeland.

General Gabriel Dumont, elected president of the Métis during the 1870s in Riel’s absence, and their great military leader.
Together with the Cree, the Métis fight with great skill and tactics, courage and spirit in defence of their rights against 6,000 fully-armed, British-commanded, regular and irregular troops and police, winning several battles.
After the final, decisive, four-day Battle of Batoche between May 8-12 1885, where the Métis, out of ammunition, resort to firing pebbles from their guns until forced to retreat, Gabriel Dumont escapes to the US, where he will teach school in Buffalo, NY. Dumont explains: “What contributed greatly to the confusion of our soldiers, was that they were refused all religious aid (from the Catholic Church), for themselves, their wives and their children!!”
After 1885, Batoche becomes “sacred ground” to the Métis. Stories of the resisters’ heroism, of old men sacrificing their lives to save young men, of Madeleine Dumont comforting the women and children, and of homes being burned and pillaged remain within the Métis community.
Today it is the leaders of the resistance – Riel, Dumont, Poundmaker – who are remembered while John A. Macdonald’s name is equated with political, financial and moral corruption: youth are named by their parents in honour of them; monuments have been built to them in Winnipeg and other locales; and even their descendants, such as John Campbell, a Métis youth who died at Batoche in 1973 and Patsy Fineday and her brother Sockeye Fineday (descendents of the warrior Fine Day) who died in 1978, continued their battle.
Since 1970, the modern celebration at Batoche, during the last week in July, has drawn thousands of Métis from across the Métis Homeland.

In August 1876, Big Bear (Mistahi’maskwa), the Plains Cree chief, refused to sign Treaty No. 6, which covers much of modern Alberta and Saskatchewan, as it would impoverish his people and destroy their way of life. From that moment he strove to unite the Cree to affirm their hereditary rights and their right to be.  Allied with the Métis in their mutual fight for their rights and a fighter in the North West Rebellion, Big Bear was not captured until July 2, 1885, along with his youngest son, Horse Child. Although not a British subject, he was tried for so-called “treason"-felony, found guilty and sentenced to three years in the Stony Mountain Penitentiary in Manitoba. He served two years. He died shortly after during the winter of 1887-88 on the Poundmaker Reserve in Saskatchewan.  After the NWMP executed Louis Riel on Nov. 16 for “treason,” the following day the NWMP hung eight First Nations warriors in its stockade at Battleford – the largest mass execution in recent Canadian history.

In August 1876, Big Bear (Mistahi’maskwa), the Plains Cree chief, refused to sign Treaty No. 6, which covers much of modern Alberta and Saskatchewan, as it would impoverish his people and destroy their way of life. From that moment he strove to unite the Cree to affirm their hereditary rights and their right to be.
Allied with the Métis in their mutual fight for their rights and a fighter in the North West Rebellion, Big Bear was not captured until July 2, 1885, along with his youngest son, Horse Child. Although not a British subject, he was tried for so-called “treason”-felony, found guilty and sentenced to three years in the Stony Mountain Penitentiary in Manitoba. He served two years. He died shortly after during the winter of 1887-88 on the Poundmaker Reserve in Saskatchewan.
After the NWMP executed Louis Riel on Nov. 16 for “treason,” the following day the NWMP hung eight First Nations warriors in its stockade at Battleford – the largest mass execution in recent Canadian history.

 

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2 Comments

Filed under First Nations, History

2 responses to “This day in 1885: Anniversary of the hanging of Louis Riel

  1. Your “Louis Riel Day” (November 16) tribute to our Aboriginal Father of Confederation, Louis Riel, and recognition of the role he played as one of the anti-colonial liberators of the New World is recognition of a critical piece of Canadian history. Throughout his career Louis Riel sought to create a “New World” that recognized both Aboriginal and democratic rights.

    A just and honest man Louis Riel was tried and executed by the Canadian state without due process, His trial was “fitted up” to ensure he would hang. The charge of High Treason was especially concocted for the North-West Territories as a Capital Crime, with a lowly stipendiary magistrate directing a six-man Anglo-Canadian jury. With his own lawyers refusing to heed Riel’s wish to defend on his actions, refusing to allow him to give evidence or call witnesses, or even speak-and finally seeking to have him declared “insane” Riel found himself surrounded by enemies in that little courthouse in the tent and tar-paper shack-town Regina. The conclusion of his trial was never in doubt, nor was his sentence: “Hang by the neck until dead!”

    Found guilty Louis Riel was forced to call out for justice. He called for an Inquiry into the Career of Louis Riel. He asked that this inquiry investigate the following questions:
    Did Riel rebel in Manitoba in 1869?
    Did Riel murder the Canadian Thomas Scott?
    Did Riel pillage the Hudson’s Bay Company?
    Was Riel a fugitive from justice?
    Did Riel rebel on the Saskatchewan in 1885?

    To this date no such inquiry has taken place and Riel remains tarred a “traitor” to Canada. This is not justice. Louis Riel was our father of Western Canada – and must be exonerated.

    Long live the noble spirit of Louis Riel!

  2. Warfare is a fascinating subject. Despite the dubious morality of using violence to achieve personal or political aims. It remains that conflict has been used to do just that throughout recorded history.

    Your article is very well done, a good read.

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