The Government of Canada describes its defence relations with the “Asia-Pacific Region” as follows:
“As a Pacific country, Canada considers its relations with its Asia-Pacific neighbours a priority. Canadian security and prosperity are linked to the vitality of Asia’s economy and the stability of the region. In support of this agenda, the Department of National Defence (DND) and Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) are committed to strengthening peace and security in the region and enhancing their engagement in Asia-Pacific.”
The Government claims that its involvement ranges “(f)rom our commitment of resources towards humanitarian and relief efforts following Typhoon Haiyan, to our participation in regional military exercises and high-level defence fora,” and that it is “proud of the steps that we have taken in recent years to bolster defence relations and increase cooperation with Canada’s partners in the Asia-Pacific region.”
The backgrounder describes Canada’s multilateral defence relations and regional military exercises as follows:
Multilateral Defence Relations
Contemporary defence and security challenges in the Asia-Pacific region, such as criminal networks, territorial disputes, natural disasters, terrorism, as well as concerns about the freedom of movement at sea can reach beyond the borders of a single state and affect the security and defence of the entire region. Responding to these challenges and mitigating their effects demands multilateral, regional responses: concerted, cooperative efforts that involve many countries pooling their resources, coordinating their efforts, and increasing interoperability between armed forces.
Multilateral defence relations are an important component of Canada’s overall engagement in the Asia-Pacific region. From a defence perspective, DND/CAF supports Canada’s diplomatic relationships in part by participating in a number of high-level multilateral defence meetings and conferences. An important example is the annual International Institute for Strategic Studies’ Asia Security Summit (Shangri-La Dialogue) in Singapore. This premier, inter-governmental event is a crucial venue for dialogue on the security and defence of the region, and is attended by ministers and chiefs of defence from Asia-Pacific and beyond. Canada’s Minister of National Defence at that time, the Honourable Peter MacKay, was an active participant at the 2013 Shangri-La Dialogue together with General Tom Lawson, Canada’s Chief of the Defence Staff. They exchanged best practices and discussed opportunities for increased collaboration with Canada’s Asian partners and other traditional partners and allies in areas such as peacekeeping, civil-military relations, maritime security, humanitarian assistance, and disaster relief.
Another important example of high-level defence conferences that support Canada’s defence relations is the United States Pacific Command Chiefs of Defence Conference. This important meeting is attended by chiefs of defence including General Lawson, as well as other senior military leaders in the Asia-Pacific region. At the Chiefs of Defence Conference, these senior military leaders discuss mutual security challenges and encourage security cooperation.
Perhaps the most important example of Canada’s multilateral relations in the Asia-Pacific region is Canada’s relations with the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). Since 1977, Canada has engaged with ASEAN as well as its member states (Brunei, Burma, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam). As the cornerstone of Canada’s multilateral relations in the Asia-Pacific region, ASEAN provides a forum for Canada to engage in an important dialogue on Asia’s defence and security issues.
Under the ASEAN organizational umbrella, Canada also participates in the ASEAN Regional Forum, which is designed to strengthen cooperation amongst member states to foster peace and security in the Asia-Pacific region. Canada is committed to contributing further to the Asia-Pacific security architecture and has announced its interest in participating in the ASEAN Defence Ministers’ Meeting Plus and the East Asia Summit. The CAF have also taken part in other regional exercises such as the ASEAN Regional Forum’s disaster relief exercise (DiREx).
Regional Military Exercises
The CAF is involved in a number of regional exercises that support multilateral defence relations. For example, the Royal Canadian Navy (RCN) continues to be engaged in a number of military exercises and deployments throughout the Asia-Pacific region. These cooperative endeavours serve to foster invaluable relationships and connections between the RCN and the navies of other countries in the region. For example, from June to August 2012, over 1400 sailors, soldiers and airwomen and airmen participated in the Rim of the Pacific (RIMPAC) exercise, which is conducted every two years in the Hawaiian Operations Area. RIMPAC is the world’s largest international maritime military exercise, involving forces from Australia, Canada, Chile, Colombia, France, India, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Mexico, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Peru, Philippines, Republic of Korea, Russia, Singapore, Thailand, Tonga, the United Kingdom, and the United States.
Canada is also a major participant in the Ulchi Freedom Guardian Exercise, which tests the operational control of the combined forces on the Korean peninsula. For the last 2 years, the CAF contingent has been the largest amongst the 16 participating countries. Canada also participated in the Key Resolve/Foal Eagle exercise series in South Korea, a field training exercise designed to improve the combined and joint operational posture of South Korean and U.S. military forces.
Canada has also participated in the KHAAN QUEST series of exercises, hosted by the Mongolian Armed Forces and co-sponsored by the Mongolian Armed Forces, U.S..Army Pacific and the Alaskan Air National Guard, under the U.S. Department of Defense Humanitarian and Civic Assistance program. The exercises are designed to enhance individual and professional readiness and tactical interoperability in the delivery of humanitarian assistance between regional partners.
Bilateral Defence Relations
Bilateral, country-to-country defence relations between Canada and individual Asia-Pacific states are another important component of Canada’s defence relations in the region. In addition to bilateral defence relations with partners in the Asia-Pacific region as described below, Canada also recently signed a Canada-U.S. Asia-Pacific Defense Policy Cooperation Framework with the U.S. This Framework provides the foundation for Canada and the U.S. to coordinate the conduct of recurring and mutually reinforcing defence-related engagement activities with our Asian partners.
Bilateral Defence Relations: North East Asia
In support of a whole-of-government approach that seeks to enhance Canada’s bilateral relationships with North East Asian countries, the DND and CAF are engaged in initiatives in China, Japan, South Korea, and Mongolia. For example, in May 2013, Canada strengthened defence cooperation with Mongolia by signing a Memorandum of Understanding which outlines possible opportunities for information exchanges, civilian and military expert visits, military education and training, and international peacekeeping activities.
Canada recognizes that China is an important economic and military power. The DND and CAF have growing relations with the Ministry of National Defence of the People’s Republic of China and the Chinese People’s Liberation Army, and will continue to engage in dialogue about issues of regional and international security. To further advance this emerging bilateral defence relationship, high-level meetings have taken place between senior DND and CAF officials and China’s People’s Liberation Army officials, including a visit by Canada’s then Chief of the Defence Staff, General Walt Natynczyk, in March 2012, and the June 2013 visit by Minister MacKay. At the 2013 meeting, Minister MacKay and China’s Minister of Defence, General Chang Wanquan, agreed to establish a Defence Coordination Dialogue to discuss defence issues of mutual concern and affirmed their intent to establish a Cooperation Plan Initiative between the People’s Liberation Army and Canada’s Defence Team, which would guide defence-related activities. Building on these exchanges, Canada’s newly appointed Minister of National Defence, the Honourable Rob Nicholson, P.C., Q.C., M.P. for Niagara Falls, and the Chief of the Defence Staff, General Tom Lawson, met with General Chang Wanquan for a bilateral exchange in Ottawa in August 2013. At the meeting, Minister Nicholson and General Chang signed the Cooperation Plan Initiative.
Japan is a valued regional and global security partner. We share a common set of values and interests, including promoting and upholding democracy, human rights, and the rule of law, access to open markets, arms control, and disarmament. These values are the bedrock of steady defence relations between Canada and Japan on a number of regional and global issues. Bilateral agreements, such as the 2010 Canada-Japan Joint Declaration on Political, Peace and Security Cooperation greatly contribute to deepening this defence relationship. Canada also has a range of agreements to cooperate with Japan on issues such as defence policy, interoperability and cross-services, nuclear non-proliferation and disarmament, disaster prevention and emergency response and peacekeeping. During a meeting with Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe on September 23, 2013, Prime Minister Harper announced agreement in principle on a Treaty. Known as the Canada-Japan Acquisition and Cross-Servicing Agreement (ACSA), the Treaty, once approved by both countries’ parliamentary processes, will be a milestone for the bilateral defence relationship. The ACSA will enable Canadian Armed Forces and Japan’s Self-Defense Force units to exchange basic goods and services wherever both forces are cooperating, such as during training, exercises, and a limited range of operations, notably humanitarian assistance missions. The ACSA will not involve the stationing of troops in either country.
Canada has long enjoyed positive bilateral defence relations with the Republic of Korea. These defence relations have a foundation in the Canadian contribution to the Korean War and have evolved into a rich history of strong political and economic partnerships and cooperation. This relationship continues to advance. Contributing to this relationship are a number of high-level visits, such the December 2012 visit by South Korean Prime Minister Kim Hwang-sik and Prime Minister Harper’s March 2012 visit to Seoul. Canada also fosters bilateral relations with South Korea through bilateral defence agreements, such as the Mutual Support Memorandum of Understanding (MOU), which enables improved logistical support and increased interoperability between Canada and South Korea’s military forces.
Canada recently joined South Korea in recognizing the 60th anniversary of the signing of the Korean Armistice and marked the 50th anniversary of diplomatic relations between our two countries. These milestones offered an opportunity for DND and CAF to connect with South Korean military staff to deepen cooperation and mutual defence interests in areas such as regional defence. Canada and South Korea continue to explore new areas and avenues of cooperation, such as enhanced collaboration during key regional exercises, including continued CAF participation in Ulchi Freedom Guardian.
Bilateral Defence Relations: South East Asia
While Canada engages its South East Asian partners multilaterally through ASEAN, the DND/CAF are also growing defence relations and initiatives with our South East Asian neighbours on a bilateral basis. These defence relations reflect the priority the DND/CAF place on mutual security and cooperative interests. Some examples of bilateral defence cooperation across the region include:
High-level meetings, such as Minister MacKay’s bilateral visits to Singapore and Thailand, in June 2012 during which Minister MacKay highlighted CAF/DND activities in South East Asia and emphasized Canada’s desire to contribute to security in the region. In 2012, General Lawson also attended the U.S. Pacific Command (PACOM) Chiefs of Defence Staff Conference and met with numerous Asia-Pacific counterparts. General Lawson also visited Thailand in 2013;
Ship visits, such as the February 2013 visit of HMCS Regina to Port Klang, Malaysia, and Manila, Philippines; and,
Defence education cooperation in locations such as Brunei, for example, which hosted the Commandant of the Canadian Forces Leadership and Recruit School in winter 2013.
Bilateral Defence Relations: Oceania
Located in the Central and South Pacific Ocean, Canada has long enjoyed positive bilateral defence relations in Oceania, particularly with Australia and New Zealand, which are both members of the Five Eyes intelligence community.
Defence relations between Canada and Australia are deep and enduring, with Australia being one of Canada’s closest partners in the Asia-Pacific region and globally. We share a common outlook on international security issues as well as a like-minded approach to operations. We have a solid foundation of defence cooperation including exercises, training, academic exchanges, high-level visits and current operations in Afghanistan.
Recent high-level visits that support and foster defence relations with Australia have included Minister’s MacKay’s visit to Australia in 2011. The trip was successful in strengthening the relationship and resulted in commitments to hold ministerial meetings, policy talks, and chief of defence meetings regularly. Both Minister MacKay and General Lawson met with their Australian counterpart at the Shangri-La Dialogue in the spring of 2013. Canada also has a Canadian defence attaché posted to Australia that is cross-accredited to New Zealand.
Canada and New Zealand also enjoy a robust history of defence cooperation. Historically, the CAF and the New Zealand Defence Forces (NZDF) have worked together in a number of international security operations, such as Afghanistan, Bosnia, and East Timor. A number of high-level visits have also taken place recently between Canada and New Zealand, such as Minister MacKay’s meeting with the New Zealand Defence Minister, and Chief of the Defence Staff, General Tom Lawson’s meeting with his New Zealand counterpart in May 2013 during the Shangri-La Dialogue in Singapore.
Since 2005, the CAF and the NZDF have participated in CANZEX (Canada New Zealand Exchange), a program that includes joint training and enhances cooperation and interoperability between our militaries. The CAF also participates in programs such as REGULUS, a Royal Canadian Navy (RCN) training program.
Bilateral Defence Relations: South West Asia
South West Asia covers the area from Afghanistan in the west to India in the east, and extends north as far as the former Soviet republics and south into the Indian Ocean. Canada has deep links to this region, which includes several members of the Commonwealth. A significant number of Canadian families trace their roots back to South West Asia, and Canada has made a major effort to promote security in the region, most significantly through our mission in Afghanistan.
Canada has an important and expanding relationship with India. Canada and India share common values, including a commitment to democracy and pluralism. High-level visits, such as Prime Minister Harper’s visit in 2012, have underscored the importance of this relationship. Canada and India are currently exploring potential areas for future defence cooperation, including training exchanges. Recent engagements have included a visit by HMCS Regina to Mumbai in January 2013, which coincided with meetings of Canada’s Deputy Ministers of National Defence and Public Safety with their Indian counterparts. Such engagements help strengthen the defence and security relationship and promote cooperation.
Pakistan remains an important partner for Canada in the global fight against terrorism, and Canada and Pakistan continue to work together to enhance defence and security in the region. High-level visits supporting this relationship have included the May 2012 visit by Pakistan’s Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee, General Khalid Shaheem Wynne. Minister MacKay, General Natynczyk, and General Wynne discussed bilateral, regional and global defence issues. General Wynne also participated in CANSEC 2012, Canada’s leading defence and security trade show.
Canada’s enduring relationship with Afghanistan will continue long after the end of our military training mission in March 2014. Canadians will not forget the sacrifices of the 158 CAF members who died working on behalf of Canada to help bring security to the Afghan people. To ensure the future stability of a secure and democratic Afghanistan, Canada will continue to provide financial support to the Government of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan. Canada’s ultimate goal is to sustain the gains that have been made since the fall of the Taliban regime and help Afghans rebuild Afghanistan into a viable country that is better governed, more stable and secure, and never again a safe haven for terrorists.
The Military Training and Cooperation Program
As an important instrument of defence diplomacy and as part of the whole-of-government approach stated in the Canada First Defence Strategy, the Military Training and Cooperation Program (MTCP):
- Enhances peace support operations’ interoperability among Canada’s partners;
- Expands and reinforces Canadian bilateral defence relations;
- Promotes Canadian democratic principles, the rule of law and the protection of human rights in the international arena; and,
- Achieves influence in areas of strategic interest to Canada.
The MTCP operates a number of training programs throughout the Asia-Pacific region, including Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Indonesia, Malaysia, Mongolia, Nepal, Pakistan, Phillipines, Republic of Korea, Singapore, and Thailand. Other regional MTCP activities have included:
- Adding Japan as an implementing partner of the MTCP. As an implementing partner, Japan contributed to the program by providing instructors/lecturers on the MTCP Civil Military Cooperation (CIMIC) tactical courses conducted in Tanzania (2012) and Senegal (2013).
- Naming Indonesia as an MTCP “Centre of Excellence,” with CAF and Indonesian forces partnering to provide training in Indonesia to military personnel from Asia-Pacific MTCP member states. Indonesia is both a priority member state of the MTCP and one of its top recipients (both in terms of budget and positions on courses). The MTCP provided training to over 150 personnel, including 43 positions in 2013-14 in courses on topics such as English language, peacekeeping, and public affairs, in addition to staff training such as National Security Studies and Canadian Security Studies. A successful Peace Support Seminar was conducted at the Indonesian Peace and Security Centre in July 2012 in partnership with the Indonesian National Armed Forces, which was followed by a Public Affairs Workshop in the fall. In 2013-2014, the DND will sponsor another Peace Support Workshop and a Civil Military Relations Workshop in Indonesia.
- Offering 27 vacancies to Malaysia (up from 10 positions in 2012/2013) for courses in 2013-2014 for English-language training, staff training and peacekeeping operations.
- Granting 21 placements to Mongolian Armed Forces personnel in 2013-2014 for courses on English and French languages, peacekeeping missions, and junior officer-staff training.
- Providing training to 150 military members from the Philippines since 1998. Members of the armed forces of the Philippines have participated in a variety of courses through the MTCP, as well as staff officer development training and peace support operations training.
- Training over 340 Thai officers in Canada since 1985. In 2013-2014, 24 Thai officers will be offered training in peacekeeping, staff officer development, and English-language training.