By Pauline Easton and Dougal MacDonald
The Harper government commemorated “Raoul Wallenberg Day” on January 17 with a statement issued by Minister of Multiculturalism Jason Kenney. With much hyperbole and no facts, Kenney’s announcement says:
“Each year on January 17th, Canadians pay tribute to Raoul Wallenberg, one of the greatest heroes of the 20th century.
“Raoul Wallenberg was a Swedish diplomat sent to Budapest, Hungary, during the Second World War. At great personal risk, he helped rescue tens of thousands of Hungarian Jews from certain death at the hands of the Nazis and their like-minded allies.
“In honouring Wallenberg’s courageous and heroic efforts, Canadians also remember one of the darkest periods of human history. The Holocaust stands alone in history for its depravity and inhumanity. Fortunately, amidst this darkness, there were shining beacons of light in individuals such as Raoul Wallenberg.
“On January 17, 1945, Soviet forces captured Wallenberg as they pushed the Nazis out of Hungary. To this day, his fate remains unknown. In recognition of his heroic achievements, Raoul Wallenberg became Canada’s very first honorary citizen and Parliament declared January 17 as Raoul Wallenberg Day.
“As the Minister for Multiculturalism, I encourage all Canadians to reflect on Raoul Wallenberg’s legacy. It is my sincere hope that all Canadians will be inspired by his selfless spirit and heroism, and that each one of us will act resolutely in the face of intolerance and prejudice.”
On the occasion, Liberal MP Irwin Cotler also issued a statement and wrote an opinion piece on the matter in the Montreal Gazette. Cotler’s statement is notable in that it fills in “facts” and “arguments” which Kenney’s hyperbole missed. Cotler’s statement says amongst other things:
“Wallenberg personally embodied what today we call the Responsibility to Protect, notably rescuing 20,000 Jews by issuing them Schutzpasses conferring diplomatic immunity; establishing diplomatic safe havens through which he saved thousands more; and organizing hospitals, soup kitchens, and child care centers, saving tens of thousands of lives and providing the most vulnerable of victims with a semblance of human dignity. In his last rescue, which was perhaps his most memorable, he warned Nazi generals preparing to liquidate the Budapest ghetto that those responsible would be brought to justice; they desisted, and another 70,000 Jews were saved.”
For Cotler it is a matter of good versus evil:
“As the world grapples with heart-wrenching terror in France, and mass atrocity in Nigeria, Iraq, Syria, Sudan, and elsewhere, Wallenberg’s inspirational and shining example reminds us how one person with the compassion to care and the courage to act can confront evil, resist, prevail, and transform history.”
This theme is repeated in his opinion piece in the Montreal Gazette:
“…Wallenberg’s legacy endures, reminding us of the power of an individual to confront evil and transform history.”
The question arises as to why the Harperites have chosen to canonize Raoul Wallenberg as “one of the greatest heroes of the 20th century” and why he is such an example for Irwin Cotler? And even if he is, why does this mean he should be imposed on Canadians? Why Raoul Wallenberg? All Jason Kenney tells us is that Raoul Wallenberg is being honoured because he “helped rescue tens of thousands of Hungarian Jews from certain death at the hands of the Nazis and their like-minded allies [sic].”
While Cotler, in his article in the Montreal Gazette, lists the feats he says Wallenberg achieved, it is interesting that neither Kenney nor Cotler provide context or background, such as how it was that Wallenberg, even in his post as a diplomat, had such freedom of movement and success in having the Nazis let some Jews go. Or what was going on in Hungary during the war. Neither Kenney nor Cotler even bother to acknowledge that most of what is known about Wallenberg is unsavoury, to say the least, and the remainder is outright contentious.
Why would Canada want such an honorary citizen? There were hundreds and thousands of heroes who fought in the anti-fascist Resistance — in fact millions. Why do the Harper government and Irwin Cotler single out Wallenberg?
Context is everything. Let us not forget that after the anti-fascist war, Winston Churchill, whom the Anglo-American elite consider a great statesman, launched the Civil War in Greece. Under his watch thousands of heroic men and women, many of them communists, were either killed or locked up in concentration camps for some forty years because they had fought in the Greek Resistance and refused to recant. So the choice of heroes for Canada to honour is certainly a matter of great concern.
The fact remains that the story of Raoul Wallenberg and his activities during the war are not so clear-cut as the Harperites and Irwin Cotler try to make out. Questions need to be raised about Wallenberg’s activities in Hungary, for which he is being honoured. They include the following:
• How much of Wallenberg’s celebrity status was due to the fact that he was a member of a very powerful capitalist family that collaborated with the Nazis and had economic interests in Hungary? He arrived in Hungary with only a few months remaining in the war and after 80 per cent of Hungarian Jews had been deported and murdered. If Wallenberg’s main mission was to save Hungarian Jews, why was he not sent much earlier? The lateness of his mission and the information known about who sent him strongly suggest that it had much more to do with the post-war arrangements the British and Americans were making to ensure the Soviet Union would not emerge as a victor in the war.
• Why is Wallenberg made a celebrity when other organizations and individuals were actually stopping far more deportations to concentration camps long before Wallenberg commenced his work, including Swiss Vice-Consul Carl Lutz, other Swedish diplomats, the Red Cross, the consul of San Salvador, and forgers associated with various Zionist groups. Lutz alone is known to have stopped deportation of far more Jews than Wallenberg did. Why is there no Carl Lutz Day? What about Valdemar Langlet, Angelo Rotta, Girogio Perlasca, Gernaro Verolino, Fredrich Born and Angel San-Briz who all accomplished what Wallenberg is said to have done or more? Finally, the Regent of Hungary, Miklos Horthy (an admitted anti-Semite) defied Hitler and stopped both the ghettoization and the deportation of many Jews on the pragmatic grounds that they played a key role in the Hungarian economy. Even after the Nazi takeover, Horthy spoke out against deportation, turning back trains and even stopping one attempt with military force. His actions are estimated to have saved 250,000 Jews. Had Horthy not done what he did, there would have been no Jews left to save.
• Every other country sent one or more of their own career diplomats to Hungary, while the Swede Wallenberg was sent by the U.S. How much of Wallenberg’s work had to do with implementing the agendas of foreign governments and their intelligence agencies such as the Office of Strategic Services (OSS), the forerunner of the CIA, with which he was known to be connected? In other words, for whom was he really working and what were his real aims? Much of his primary concerns were commercial, financial, and social rather than humanitarian.
• Who really was responsible for his demise and why? Why did his very rich and powerful family make little effort to find him immediately after the war ended?
Furthermore, to believe the Raoul Wallenberg story, you have to believe that official Swedish neutrality was neither pro nor anti-Nazi. In fact, Swedish neutrality was used by the very rich Wallenberg family to conduct lucrative business ventures with the Nazis. Raoul Wallenberg was not risking his life every minute of the time he spent in Hungary or Budapest as the resistance fighters were doing to save Hungarian Jews, Roma, communists and resistance fighters from the Nazi killing machine and to defeat the Nazis. He was engaged in bribery, wheeling and dealing, as in any normal business deals amongst the very rich, to further his family’s own self-serving interests, during and after the war.
In this context, the wheeling and dealing to save Jewish lives in Hungary was manipulated by the Zionist organization in that country, led by one Rudolf Kastner, whose unsavoury dealings were finally exposed in Israel when he was a member of the government. Kastner had actually been arrested by the Hungarian secret police and then freed by the Nazis so he could continue his work. A Hungarian Jew named Malchiel Greenwald published a newsletter in Jerusalem in 1953 which decried how some Jews were saved in deals which permitted the Nazis to send others to the death camps. The project was led by the British as confirmed by none other than David Ben-Gurion, first Prime Minister of Israel, when he said:
“If I knew that it was possible to save all the children of Germany by transporting them to England, and only half by transferring them to the Land of Israel, I would choose the latter, for before us lies not only the numbers of these children but the historical reckoning of the people of Israel.” 
In his newsletter, Greenwald accused Kastner of collaborating with the Nazis in Hungary in 1944. The Attorney General of Israel charged Greenwald with “criminal libel,” and the subsequent trial produced evidence that in fact Kastner, as leader of the Jewish Rescue Committee in Budapest, agreed to help the Nazis deport thousands of Jews to the extermination camps and in return the Nazis would allow him to choose 600 prominent Jews who would be allowed to go to Switzerland.
In his written verdict in Attorney General vs Malchiel Greenwald, Judge Benjamin Halevi wrote:
“The Nazi organizers of extermination and the perpetrators of extermination permitted Rudolf Kastner and the members of the Jewish Council in Budapest, to save themselves and their relatives and friends. The Nazis did this as a means of making the local Jewish leaders, whom they favoured, dependent on the Nazi regime, dependent on its goodwill during the time of its fatal deportation schedule. In short, the Nazis succeeded in bringing the Jewish leaders into collaboration with the Nazis at the time of the catastrophe.
“Eichmann did not want a second Warsaw. For this reason the Nazis exerted themselves to mislead and bribe the Jewish leaders.” 
Judge Halevi also pointed out in his verdict that at the Nuremberg trials, Kastner had provided a written affidavit in favour of SS murderer Kurt Becher to guarantee his freedom and that it was “full of lies.” Becher was in charge of confiscating Jewish property in Hungary. He died in West Germany in 1995 an extremely wealthy businessman based on valuables he extorted and tortured out of many Jews during the war, as well as his subsequent enterprises. These included Cologne Handelgesellschaft which ironically had extensive business dealings with the Israeli government.
In October 1945, after all the Holocaust survivors had trickled back to Hungary, the people from Kastner’s village (Kluj) tried him in absentia in a people’s court and pronounced him a war criminal. In 1998, the Hungarian government tried to rehabilitate Kastner’s reputation by erecting a monument to him in Budapest, but this was denounced by Hungarian Jews as a wicked attempt to rewrite history.
Now, in similar fashion, monuments and statues are erected to Raoul Wallenberg in Austria, Israel and the United States, while Canada declares January 17, Wallenberg Day. This does not serve to unite people or provide a shining example of heroism that the people can emulate. Not everyone had links to the Nazi war machine, and for good reason. Not everyone had pots of money to buy off Nazi officials and even if they did, they could find another use for such money.
There are others like Wallenberg who are heroes of the international financial oligarchy and their representatives. One is eulogized in the Stephen Spielberg movie Schindlers’ List about a Nazi who, according to the film, pays to save the lives of some Jewish slaves by keeping them in his employ. The Nazi Schindler is a hero in Spielberg’s eyes and the eyes of many who fall prey to the manipulation of the history of WWII and the European Holocaust. This manipulation serves their purposes to support the Zionist project in Israel today, as well as push anti-communism and propaganda to isolate Russia.
Spielberg has a lot of money and investors. He could make any project he wants. In fact, prior to making Schindler’s List, he sent people to interview every Holocaust survivor who would talk to him. He could have made any film — why did he choose this one?
When reviewing the information known about Raoul Wallenberg and the Wallenberg connection to the Nazi war machine, it is difficult to comprehend the psychopathology that would see the deals with the German Nazis as laudable under the guise that they saved Jewish lives, as if there was not an alternative. The fact is that in Hungary these deals included having the Germans give the Jews en route to concentration camps the impression that they would be liberated, with the aim of provoking no resistance. That is why the extermination of Jews in Hungary was so swift, which Irwin Cotler does not say. The fact that fewer Nazi troops were required to guard the camps also meant that more Nazi troops were available on the war front.
The presentation of people like Raoul Wallenberg as heroes is the result of the manipulation of perception based on decontextualization. It serves the aim of disempowering the people so that they do not oppose the current anti-communist, racist and anti-worker propaganda such as that engaged in by the Harper government for purposes of smashing the fight against the neo-liberal anti-social offensive. The aim of the narrative of good versus evil, when all is said and done, is to destroy the human capacity to distinguish right from wrong, fact from fraud, a lofty ideal from a self-serving course of action.
Why doesn’t Canada have a day honouring the undisputed anti-fascist heroes, some of whom were Canadians, for example, the members of the MacKenzie-Papineau Brigade who fought in Spain against Franco’s fascist onslaught? Or the world-renowned doctor Norman Bethune?
One reason is to denigrate and discourage the organization of resistance to dictatorial power, which is what Harper himself wields today. Another reason is, once again, to attack communism and everything progressive. It is well-known that the communists were in the forefront of the anti-fascist resistance within most of the European countries and made the major contribution to defeating the Nazis. The heroic role of the Soviet Red Army in liberating Europe and the tremendous sacrifice of the resistance fighters — these are things the Harperites are vainly trying to bury forever in their ongoing attempts to rewrite history in the interests of those who seek to usurp power to dominate the world today.
It brings Canada no honour to have given honorary citizenship to a controversial figure like Raoul Wallenberg. As for the Harperites and the likes of Irwin Cotler, it merely exposes them as the profound Zionists and Anglo-American imperialist agents they are. Canada has many heroes to admire, both those who are Canadian and those who are from other countries. Canada’s younger generation is sure to seek them out and hold them in high esteem.
Who was Raoul Wallenberg?
Raoul Wallenberg was a businessman and member of Sweden’s richest and most powerful capitalist family, who first went to Germany-allied Hungary in February 1942 to start conducting an import-export food business on behalf of the Swedish company Mellaneuropeiska, owned by industrialist Sven Salen, a close associate of the Wallenberg family.
Coincidentally, the American Legation was in the same Budapest building as Mellaneuropeiska. The company manager, Kalman Lauer, did not want to travel to Hungary because of anti-Jewish laws, so that work fell to Wallenberg. Wallenberg also made several business trips to Germany and Occupied-France during the early years of World War II. It appears that on these trips he may have been acting on business matters other than those of his own firm.
Hungary was a declared ally of Nazi Germany with its own government. The Nazis kept Hungarian regent (uncrowned king) Miklos Horthy and his circle of aristocrats and industrialists in power because of Hungary’s contribution to Germany’s war economy. But after Adolf Hitler discovered that Horthy and Prime Minister Miklos Kallay were secretly negotiating an armistice with the approaching Soviet forces, Hitler ordered the occupation of Hungary by German troops on March 12, 1944, after luring Horthy out of the country. The Nazi occupiers, commanded by Adolf Eichmann, began shipping Jews again from Hungary by train to Auschwitz-Birkenau concentration camp. Even so, the Hungarian government never completely lost its sovereignty over its own country and, as it became clearer that Germany would be defeated, Hungary worked to distance itself from the Nazis and build relations with the allied nations.
On June 12, 1944, Raoul Wallenberg was officially appointed by the U.S. Wartime Refugee Board (WRB) – not by Sweden – to aid Hungarian Jews. In fact, he could be most accurately described as a Swedish businessman working for the U.S. government and financed by U.S. money. He had attended university in the U.S. from 1931-35. One of Wallenberg’s conditions was that he be given undisclosed amounts of cash to bribe Hungarian and Nazi officials. During Wallenberg’s six-month stay in Budapest, the WRB issued him twelve sets of instructions while Sweden issued him none. The Swedish Foreign Ministry did, however, make him an attaché to the Swedish Legation in Budapest to give him full diplomatic accreditation and immunity, and also paid him a small salary.
The choice of Raoul Wallenberg for the mission was not accidental. Wallenberg knew the former Hungarian Minister in Stockholm, Dr. Antal Ullein-Reviczky, and his wife, and through them met Jozsef Balogh, editor of the influential Hungarian Review. Balogh had gathered around himself a circle of influential and British-oriented aristocrats, industrialists, and politicians, including Horthy and Baron Manfred Weiss, Hungary’s most powerful industrialist. The Weiss empire, owned by the interrelated Weiss, Chorin, Kornfeld and Mautner families, included Swedish subsidiaries, while, in turn, the Wallenberg family had a powerful presence in Hungary through their monopolies, Swedish Match and SKF Bearing. Henrik de Wahl, managing director of Manfred Weiss A.G., played a key role in ensuring Raoul Wallenberg’s selection for the humanitarian mission to Budapest. Meanwhile, the Wallenberg family found ways to quietly help members of the Hungarian elite protect their holdings, the same elite, which formed the core of Raoul Wallenberg’s Hungarian associates.
Wallenberg arrived in Budapest on July 9, 1944, just ten months prior to Germany’s surrender. His stated mission for the War Refugee Board (WRB) was to “take action for the immediate rescue of Jews of Europe and other victims of enemy prosecution.” The WRB was no minor organization. Established by President Roosevelt on January 22, 1944, it consisted of Secretary of Treasury Henry Morgenthau Jr., Under-Secretary of State Edward Stettinius Jr. (a J.P. Morgan partner), and Secretary of War Henry Stimson. Further, Iver Olsen, the WRB representative who hired Wallenberg and liaised with him, also worked for the OSS. Some U.S. officials doubted Wallenberg’s reliability because of his family’s many lucrative business relationships with the Nazi government (see below).
A less-publicized focus of Wallenberg’s aid mission was actually the protection of vital Hungarian business assets and of the highly skilled professionals employed by these businesses, which his business associate Kálman Lauer called, “People of the Future.” The aim was to preserve the elite so they could come to power again in a post-war, pro-British, pro-American Hungary. It was clear that Nazi Germany was going to be defeated and that the Soviet Union would have influence in post-war Hungary. In fact, the lateness of Wallenberg’s mission strongly suggests that the U.S.’s post-war considerations were the dominant factor in its creation.
Some deals that Raoul Wallenberg made with Hungarian and German Nazi representatives to enable him to place Hungarian Jews under official Swedish protection were, to say the least, questionable. Lars Berg, the Swedish consul in Budapest during the war, confirmed this in a post-war internal Swedish Foreign Ministry memo:
“Wallenberg received considerable support from the wealthy industrial family Weiss … Even Himmler’s Special Representative and controller of the [confiscated] Weiss Family [holdings], Kurt Becher … helped Raoul Wallenberg in critical situations.”
As Germany’s fortunes declined, various German officials, including Himmler, Eichmann and Becher, tried to make deals with various foreign representatives where they made false promises to save certain numbers of Jews in return for money or even equipment, likely actually hoping to save their own necks from post-war justice.
Raoul Wallenberg’s overall strategy to aid the Jews was to issue Swedish passports and protective letters (schutzpasses) to some Jews destined for execution and put them safely in Budapest buildings he had bought with U.S. money, identified as “Swedish territory,” until they could emigrate from Hungary. It is not clear whether the protective documents were sold or given away. There is contention concerning the number of Jews actually saved by Wallenberg, — certainly not the 20,000 suggested by Cotler; more in the range of 4,500.
The issuing of protective documents did not originate with Wallenberg; they were invented by Swiss Vice-Consul Carl Lutz in 1942 and they were being used by Lutz, the Swedish Legation and others long before Wallenberg arrived. Even prior to 1941, diplomats from Britain, Portugal and France issued “visas for life.” Sometimes Nazi and Hungarian officials accepted the schutzpasses and other times they did not. Emigration of course was a further step that required funds, which were the responsibility of the individual. Emigration fitted well with the Zionist project, the aim of which was to flood Israel with European Jews in order to outnumber the Arab population.
On October 15, 1944, Horthy negotiated a ceasefire with the Soviets. The Nazis then forced Horthy to abdicate in favour of Ferenc Szalasi and his fascist Arrow Cross Party (the Nyilas) even though Soviet forces were already inside Budapest. The Arrow Cross government helped Eichmann restart deportations of Jews to Auschwitz, and conduct random killings, but it effectively fell at the end of January 1945, when the Soviet Army took Pest and the fascist forces retreated across the Danube to Buda. Many Arrow Cross members were tried as war criminals by the post-war Hungarian government and a number were executed, including Szalasi.
Just before the Soviet army arrived to liberate Budapest in fall 1944, Wallenberg is reputed to have gone with Pal Szalai, a high-ranking member of the fascist Arrow Cross Party whom Wallenberg had bribed, to personally persuade the Nazis to stop an Arrow Cross plan to directly assault the central Jewish ghetto. However, Wallenberg’s role was considerably more limited than depicted in popular representations. Historians such as Paul Levine provide evidence that the decision of Pal Szalai to betray the Arrow Cross plans to Wehrmacht General Schmidhuber was the critical act of this particular drama. Schmidhuber ordered the assault to be halted and arrested some of the individuals due to lead it, likely having in mind post-war retribution for war crimes.
On October 29, 1944, elements of the 2nd Ukrainian Front under Marshal Rodion Malinovsky launched an offensive against Budapest and by December 26 the city had been encircled by Soviet forces. The German commander refused to surrender, setting in motion a long and bloody siege until the Germans surrendered on February 15, 1945. The Soviet Army completely liberated Hungary on April 4, 1945.
During the siege of Budapest, on January 17, 1945, Wallenberg was called to General Malinovsky’s headquarters to answer charges he was engaged in espionage. The allegation was true. In May 1996, the CIA released thousands of previously classified documents regarding Wallenberg, which confirm that he was an American intelligence asset while in Hungary. Wallenberg also had connections with Britain’s MI6 and with the underground “Hungarian Independence Movement” (MFM), which was in contact with Swedish Intelligence and which worked closely with its British and U.S. counterparts. Further, family patriarch Marcus Wallenberg (1899-1982) and his associates had been involved in clandestine talks between Britain and Hungary in 1942/43. Obviously, all the spying was about the U.S. and UK jockeying for power and influence in post-war Hungary and limiting Soviet influence, once the Nazis were defeated.
The Wallenberg family’s collaboration with the Nazis
It is significant that Raoul Wallenberg was a member of Sweden’s richest and most powerful family, who have long controlled about 30-40 per cent of the entire Swedish economy and who have been compared to the U.S. Rockefellers. The Wallenbergs own such major Swedish corporations as Skandinaviska Enskilda Banken (the family bank), Foundation Asset Management (FB), weapons maker Bofors, defence contractor Saab, communications giant Ericcson, Skandinavian Airlines (SAS), drugmaker Astra-Zeneca, Husqvarna, Atlas Copco, and SKF Bearing. The current family patriarch, Marcus Wallenberg (1956-), served on the steering committee of the Bilderberg Group, which is an annual private conference of the capitalist world’s leading bankers, industrialists, and politicians.
During the Second World War, Sweden, which emerged from the war as the richest country in Europe, was officially “neutral,” but this was a myth. Swedish companies, including those owned by the Wallenbergs, collaborated with the Nazis, supplying Germany with raw materials, giving credit to allow the delivery of war materials to the Wehrmacht, providing railway transport to assist the invasion of Norway, and acting as a conduit for goods and foreign currency to and from Germany. Sweden’s King Gustav V was a close friend of Herman Goering (whose first wife was Swedish) and other high Nazi officials. Following the war, “neutral” Sweden agreed to pay almost $70 million in reparations but has not done so and still holds many tons of Nazi gold somewhere in its bank vaults.
The Wallenbergs’ bank, Enskilda Banken (which merged with Skandinaviska Banken in 1972 to form Skandinaviska Enskilda Banken) helped the Nazis dispose of millions of dollars in assets confiscated from prisoners by converting the stolen Nazi gold into Swedish currency. The Enskilda Bank secretly purchased all foreign branches of the Robert Bosch Group, a German manufacturer of spark plugs that employed slave labour, in return for Bosch facilitating Enskilda’s sale of $3.6 million worth of German bonds. The Enskilda Bank also helped Nazi corporations such as I.G. Farben and Krupp hide their foreign subsidiaries to avoid confiscation by the Allies. U.S. Secretary of the Treasury, Henry Morgenthau Jr., in a February 1945 letter to the U.S. Secretary of State, charged that Enskilda was making large loans to the Nazis without collateral, and making covert investments for German capitalists in U.S. industries.
1. In 1985, Raoul Wallenberg was declared Canada’s first honourary citizen by the Progressive Conservative government of Brian Mulroney. Sixteen years later, on June 5, 2001, the date January 17 was established as Raoul Wallenberg Day by the Chrétien Liberal government. It was celebrated for the first time in 2002.
2. Irwin Cotler is the Liberal MP for Mount Royal, former minister of justice and attorney general of Canada, and emeritus Professor of Law at McGill University. In 2014, he was awarded the Raoul Wallenberg Centennial Medal.
3. David Ben-Gurion, quoted on pp 855-56 in Shabtai Teveth’s Ben-Gurion in a slightly different translation. (http://monabaker.com/quotes.htm)
4. District Court, Jerusalem, June 22, 1955.
5. Kurt Becher joined the Nazi Party in 1934, served as SS Major in Poland and was a member of the Death Corps that worked around the clock killing Jews. Appointed by Heinrich Himmler as Commissar of Concentration Camps in German-occupied territory, he was also made Chief of the Economic Department of the SS command in Hungary. Adolf Eichmann worked with Becher in the Economic Department. In 1945, Hitler gave Kurt Becher the rank of Lieutenant General of the SS Waffen Command for his achievements in Auschwitz, Dachau, Mathausen, Bergen-Belsen and others.
Becher’s assets were assessed by German newspapers at more than $30 million in the 1960s.
(Hecht, Ben (1961). Perfidy. Jullian Messner Inc.: New York.)
6. Florence, Ronald (2010). Emissary of the Doomed: Bargaining for Lives in the Holocaust. New York: Viking.
7. Levine, Paul (2010). Raoul Wallenberg in Budapest: Myth, History and Holocaust. London & Portland: Vallentine Mitchell.
Source: TML Weekly Information Project, February 7, 2014