The Illegitimate State of Israel (I): Zionist Terrorism and Crimes in Palestine – 1939-1945

First in a series published on the occasion of the 73rd anniversary of Al Nabka, May 15, 2021

Complied and edited with an introduction by Tony Seed based on the Encyclopedia of the Palestine Problem authored by the late Issa Nakhleh

Part Two – The Illegitimate State of Israel (II): Zionist Terrorism and Crimes in Palestine – 1946 (forthcoming)

Part Three – The Illegitimate State of Israel (III): Zionist Terrorism and Crimes in Palestine – 1947 (forthcoming)

Part Four – The Illegitimate State of Israel (IV): Zionist Terrorism and Crimes in Palestine – 1948 (forthcoming)

Part Five – The Conspiracy to Expel and the Expulsion of Palestinian Arabs – 1948-1950 (forthcoming)

Introduction

(Updated May 23) – On May 14, 1948, the Zionist state of Israel was established by unilateral declaration in defiance of the United Nations and international law on the basis of 33 massacres, terrorism and the dispossession and mass expulsion of the indigenous Palestinian people from their land by the foreign-armed Zionist state and its militias with the backing of the great powers, the United States in the first place, as well as Canada. Some 750,000 Palestinians were forced to flee. Palestinians were forced from their lands and homes due to military attacks by Zionist forces, supported by the British and U.S. governments. The Israeli Zionist forces attacked 774 cities and villages, and occupied 80 per cent of the Palestinian soil after killing nearly 15,000 Muslim and Christian civilians.

Of this population, approximately one-third were forced to migrate to the West Bank, another third to the Gaza Strip, and the remainder to neighbouring countries such as Jordan, Syria, Lebanon, registered as refugees with the United Nations and forcibly denied the right of return.

Another 350,000 were dispossessed in 1967 following the Six-Day War during which Israel occupied the Gaza Strip, West Bank, Sinai Peninsula and Golan Heights. The number of Palestinians in the Diaspora now numbers over 5 million people. “We must do everything to ensure they [the Palestinians] never do return … The old will die and the young will forget,” said David Ben-Gurion, the founder of Israel, in 1949. But the young have not forgotten.

For the information of readers, we are serializing in five instalments chapters from the Encyclopedia of the Palestine Problem (1999), a 1,000-page work in two volumes by the late Issa Nakhleh*, a distinguished lawyer and statesman, which provide detailed information on the years 1939-1948, as to the nature and methods of the illegitimate Zionist conquest of Palestine of May 15, 1948. These are not otherwise available on the Internet. Much of the information is derived directly from British Colonial files in London. To proceed directly to this exhaustive work, scroll down the page.

Beginning with the first instalment, we document Zionist terrorism between 1939 and 1945, representing Chapter 4 of the Encyclopedia. These chapters contain unimpeachable evidence of Zionist crimes in the form of official reports from the British High Commissioner for Palestine to the Colonial Office in London and by the Commanding Officer of British Forces in Palestine to the War Office in London. These documents were meticulously photocopied by Issa Nakhleh from the files of the Foreign Office, Colonial Office and War Office in the Public Record Office, Kew Gardens, Surrey, the United Kingdom.

Issa Nakhleh underlines that practically every political and military leader in the newly-formed state was a member of or is related to members of one of these three Zionist terror gangs. This is well known and documented, especially to Palestinians who were their victims. Yet the modus operandi merits more attention. The thesis of Issa Nakleh amongst other things that they were the “inventors” of international terrorism is simply not true; rather, they were apt, creative and treacherous students! Some even posed as socialists. Since the Tsarist Empire when they were “Zubatov” or “police socialists”, Zionists were the agents of different powers, large and small – Germany, France, Turkey – until they won the absolute confidence of the British in World War I. They turned on their masters at times, but never broke the umbilical cord. The condition for the global spread of the Zionist virus was the imperialist system of states and in West Asia the negation of the accumulated thought material of the ages of governance and the collective participation of the people and resources of society of the peoples of Palestine, Arabia and Persia in modern nation-building.

Issa Nakhleh (see postscript) is the author of the Encyclopedia of the Palestine Problem in two volumes, which is the subject of this series. Published in 1991, it has 41 Chapters and 1091 pages, with voluminous footnotes and 60 pages of photos. It deals with the ancient and modern history of Palestine, the political and religious questions, all United Nations Resolutions and the principles of international law and justice relating to the Palestine Question.

This post is sourced from Chapter 4, Zionist Terrorism & Crimes in Palestine 1939-1945 and is divided into the following sections:

  • Israeli Leaders are the Master Terrorists
  • The Goal of Zionist Terrorism
  • The Biltmore Resolutions
  • British Official Opinion of Jewish Terrorism
  • Agreement Between the Hagana, Irgun and Stern
  • The Taking of Hostages
  • Letter and Parcel Post Bombs
  • Examples of Terrorist Crimes
  • Zionists Accuse Arabs of Terrorism to Cover Their Own Terrorism
  • U.S. Congress Adopts Measures Against the P.L.O.
  • Discussion of Zionist Terrorism in the House of Commons
  • Proposed Alliance Between the Stern Gang and Nazi Germany
  • Zionist Terrorism and Crimes in Palestine 1939-1945, Reports from the Public Record Office, London

CHAPTER FOUR. ZIONIST TERRORISM AND CRIMES IN PALESTINE 1939-1945

ISRAELI LEADERS ARE THE MASTER TERRORISTS

Between 1939 and 1945 Zionist leaders in Palestine directed three bands of killers – the Hagana, the Irgun Z’vai Leumi, and the Stern Gang – all of which specialized in inventing and committing a wide variety of terrorist crimes. Each one of the present sinister top Israeli leaders was a member of one or the other of these three terrorist organizations. Israeli leaders are the Godfathers of terrorism in Palestine and in the Middle East. They are the inventors and masters of international terrorism.

THE GOAL OF ZIONIST TERRORISM WAS TO PREVENT PALESTINE INDEPENDENCE

Arab Stamp, 1938

After the London conference of 1939 between the British government and representatives of the Arab governments, the Palestinian Arabs and the Jewish Agency, the British government issued the White Paper of May, 1939, declaring its intention regarding the future government of Palestine:

    1. The objective of His Majesty’s Government is the establishment within ten years of an independent Palestine State which will be in treaty relations with the United Kingdom as will provide satisfactorily for the commercial and strategic requirements of both countries in the future;
    2. The independent State should be one in which Arabs and Jews share in government in such a way as to ensure that the essential interests of each community are safeguarded.(1)

THE BILTMORE RESOLUTIONS

The American Zionist Conference held in New York in May 1942 formulated the “Biltmore Resolutions.” Chief of these resolutions was that Palestine be established as a Jewish Commonwealth integrated in the structure of the new democratic world.(2) In a note from the War Office to the British cabinet it was stated:

In October 1942, the “Biltmore Programme” was discussed at a meeting of the Inner Zionist General Council in Jerusalem and was approved. The salient points of this Programme are:

(a) Affirmation of the unalterable rejection of the White Paper.

(b) That the Jewish Agency be vested with the control of immigration into Palestine.

(c) That Palestine be established as a Jewish Commonwealth.

(d) The formation of a Jewish military force, fighting under its own flag and under the command of the United Nations.

In both public and private utterance, Zionist leaders have for some time been asserting their determination to resist by force any attempt to frustrate the attainment of what they consider to be their legitimate aims in Palestine, that is, the Biltmore Programme. The rank and file of the Zionist Party, too, have shown an increasingly uncompromising spirit as the Spring of 1944, the end of the period of the White Paper of 1939, approaches.

The New Zionist (Revisionist) Organization has always had as its objective a Jewish State on both sides of the Jordan; and although the Organization has appeared more cooperative with the British since the outbreak of war than the Zionist Organization has, it is not to be supposed that the Revisionists have lost sight of their ultimate aims or in any way weakened in their determination to achieve them, A setback to Zionist aims, which are a stage on the way to New Zionist aims, is a setback to Revisionism.(3)

Commenting on this, the High Commissioner (in his Telegram 1495A of 21 November, 1942) stated that “these developments mean that official Zionist policy has been shown publicly to be maximalist.” Though the Revisionists have not formally adopted these Resolutions, this is only because their policy is Palestine plus Transjordan as a Jewish State, and acceptance would imply a climb down from their maximum demands. (Revisionists control the Irgun Z’vai Leumi illegal terrorist army of about 3,000).(4)

In a cable from the Government of Palestine to the Secretary of State for the Colonies on October 2, 1944, the government stated:

It may be useful if I supplement my telegram No. 1245 by some general observations regarding the present situation.

I need hardly stress the extent and development of the terrorist campaign which is being carried on in Palestine, culminating in the unsuccessful attempt to assassinate the King’s representative, recently concerted, and large scale attacks on Police Stations, and the brutal murder of a Senior Police Officer in the streets of Jerusalem.

Most dangerous development is the growth in numbers of Jewish young men and women who are becoming infected with the gangster virus; these are providing recruits for the terrorist organization. As well as active recruits, passive sympathisers with the terrorists’ aims, even while they doubt the wisdom of their methods, are multiplying, especially amongst young people; thus there is a tendency for Yishuv to become more and more demoralised by absorption of this poison.(5)

On September 10, 1945, the British Secretary of State for the Colonies submitted a memorandum to the Prime Minister in which he stated:

The young Jewish extremists, the product of a vicious education system, know neither toleration nor compromise; they regard themselves as morally justified in violence directed against any individual or institution that impedes the complete fulfillment of their demands. In a similar spirit their ancestors in the second century B.C. laid waste Palestine until a ravaged countryside and ruined cities marked the zenith of Hasmonaean power. The prototypes of the Stern Group and National Military Organization are the Zealots and Assassins according to whose creed even Jews married to Gentiles were worthy of death in Roman times. These Zealots of today, from Poland, Russia and the Balkans have yet to learn toleration and recognition of the rights of others. As the Foreign Secretary said recently of the Balkans, these people do not understand the meaning of the word democracy. The Jewish Agency may deplore terrorism; but every immoderate speech … the flagrant disregard on the one hand for the authority of Government in maintaining law and order and on the other for the Arab case, the chauvinism and intolerance of their educational system, all contribute to an atmosphere in which the fanatic and the terrorist flourish. The Jewish leaders appear to be deliberately pushing extremism to a point when an explosion can no longer be avoided and do not scruple to use the plight of the Jews in Europe as a main political excuse. There are many Jews who deplore this state of affairs, but the rigidity of the discipline imposed by the political machine effectively discourages criticism except where it has no practical effect on Zionist policy. The Jews, like so much in Europe, need education in toleration and democracy.(6)

In a note to the British Cabinet it was stated:

Ben Gurion publicly declared on 7 June, 1944 that, though he once supported partition, in view of the changed world situation of Jewry he now rejected it, and reaffirmed his uncompromising support of the full Biltmore programme, to which the Zionist organization as a whole and most of its constituent parties are committed (this programme demands all Palestine as a Jewish commonwealth).

This policy was reaffirmed shortly afterwards by Mr. Shertok, head of the Political Dept. of the Jewish Agency, who at a Press conference stated that “the attitude of the Executive of the Jewish Agency in regard to the partition of Palestine was now negative. Zionist policy …. was based on the Biltmore programme.(7)

The Jewish Agency and the Hagana, headed by David Ben Gurion, the Irgun Z’vai Leumi headed by Menahem Begin, and the Stern Gang co-headed by Yitzhak Shamir, started a campaign of terrorism against members of the British armed forces, British police, Palestinian police and the Palestinian civilian population.

Terrorist operations from 1939-1948 were carried out after being approved by the United Forces or what was called the Command of the United Resistance Movement, which was composed of representatives of the Hagana, the Irgun and the Stern Gang. Moshe Sneh, Israel Galili and others represented the Hagana, Menahem Begin and others represented the Irgun, and Abraham Stern, Nathan Yellin-Mor and others represented the Stern Gang.

The operations agreement between the three terrorist organizations was as follows:

    1. The Hagana organization is initiating a military campaign against the British government. (The “Tenuat Hariieri” or United Resistance Movement is born.)
    2. The Irgun and LEHI (Stern Gang) will not carry out their operational plans without the approval of the command of the Tenuat Hameri.
    3. The Irgun and LEHI will carry out the operational plans assigned to them by the command of Tenuat Hameri.
    4. The discussions of the proposed operations will not be formal. Representatives of the three fighting organizations will meet regularly, or as the need arises, in order to discuss the plan from a political and practical standpoint.
    5. After the operations are approved in principle, the experts of the three organizations will discuss the details of the execution.
    6. The approval of the Tenuat Hameri command is not necessary for arms acquisition (taking arms from the British). The Irgun and LEHI are allowed to pursue such operations on their own.
    7. The agreement among the three fighting organizations is based on the “commandment of active action.”
    8. If at any time the Hagana is ordered to give up the military campaign against the British rule, the Irgun and LEHI will continue to fight…(8)

Menahem Begin referred to the agreement between the Zionist terrorist organizations as follows:

The agreement between the groups forming together the Resistance Movement, that is to say between the Jewish Agency and Haganah and the underground organizations, was not written in ink but sealed in blood. Its fundamental condition was action. It imposed grave limitations on us, but we observed it not only in the spirit but even in the unwritten letter.”(9)

Begin gave examples of the terrorist operations approved by the United Forces of the terrorist organizations:

The following were the operations officially approved by the United Forces: the attack on the airfields; a widespread sabotage attack in the south; the blowing up of trains on the three main lines of the country; the F.F.I. (Stern Gang) attack on the railway workshops at Haifa; and our attack on the King David Hotel. But there were two more operations carried out during that period by the “dissidents” which were approved only “unofficially” by the Haganah. One was the attack on the Jerusalem Prison carried out by our Assault Force and the F.F.I. and aimed at freeing captive members of both organizations.(10)

The cooperation between the Hagana, the Irgun and the Stern Gang in committing terrorist crimes was confirmed by evidence collected by the Palestine Government in the “Statement of Information Relating to Acts of Violence.” (11)

Begin, who masterminded and carried out the attack on the King David Hotel, admitted that the massacre was coordinated with, and carried out under instructions of, the Hagana:

In the Spring of 1946 we submitted our plan for the first time to the Command of the Resistance Movement. I informed Sneh and Galili that we would undertake to penetrate the Government wing of the King David Hotel and to carry out an extensive sabotage operation.(12)

Begin confirmed that the Hagana ordered the operation against the King David Hotel. He stated:

On the 1st July, 1946, two days after Barker’s attack on the Jewish Agency, we received a letter from the Hagana Command which ran as follows: “Shalom! You are to carry out as soon as possible the Chick and the house of ‘Your slave-and-redeemer.’ Inform us of the date. Preferably simultaneously. Do not publish the identity of the body carrying out the operation – neither directly nor by implication.”(13)

The Hagana wanted to give only 15 minutes between the introduction of the explosives into the building of the King David Hotel and the explosion itself, but the Irgun wanted to give 45 minutes. Finally, it was agreed by a compromise on half an hour.(14)

On 22 July 1946, Etzel (better known as Irgun) blew up the southern wing of the King David Hotel in Jerusalem, which housed the central offices of the Mandate government and the British army headquarters. In what Dominique Lapierre, co-author of the book O Jerusalem, calls “the first massive terrorist political action of modern history,” 91 people were left dead and hundreds wounded. The tactical aim included the destruction of truckloads of compromising secret documents seized on June 29th. “It was these records that the Resistance Movement plotted to destroy.” Commander Sneh (Commander-in-Chief of the Haganah since 1940) approved the plans and their execution. Nevertheless, the Jewish Agency, fearful of world opinion, hastily condemned the act and declared their ally of two hours before – the Irgun – an outfit that shamed the Jewry of Palestine. This marked the ignominious end of the open so-called “united Hebrew resistance movement” which, however, covertly continued on a clandestine basis. – TS

A wing of the King David Hotel was blown up on July 22, 1946, and 91 British, Arab and Jewish men and women were killed: 46 were wounded, many with permanent disabilities.

The Irgun Z’vai Leumi and the Stern Gang captured the village of Deir Yassin and committed the notorious Deir Yassin massacre on the 9-10 April, 1948. Menahem Begin confirmed that Deir Yassin was captured with the knowledge of the Hagana and with the approval of its commander.(15) Begin glorified the massacre of Deir Yassin and its benefits for Zionist goals. He stated:

Out of evil, however, good came. This Arab propaganda spread a legend of terror amongst Arabs and Arab troops, who were seized with panic at the mention of Irgun soldiers. The legend was worth half a dozen battalions to the forces of Israel.(16)

Menahem Begin bragged in his book that he was considered “Terrorist Number One.”(17) Yitzhak Sharnir of the Stern Gang was considered “Terrorist Number Two.”

Zionist terrorist attack on the village of Deir Yassin, April 9, 1948.

 

Palestinian irregulars move to counterattack Haganah positions during the critical battle of Al Qastal on April 5, 1948. It occupied a strong point on the road tp Jerusalem, then under Arab blockade.

 

Abdul Qader al Husseini with his troops in January 1948. His forces included defecting British soldiers. Despite being denied arms and reinforcements by the Aran League in Damascus, he defiantly led the defence of Al Qastel where he was martyred.

 

Mourners at Huseyni’s funeral gather near Sheik Jarrah included most of the men from Deir Yassin, a neighbouring village to Al Qastel. The brave Zionists cowardly attacked the defenceless village at 3 a.m. Nevertheless the women, elders and youth fought for 12 hours before being overwhelmed. Enraged at the resistance, the Zionists massacred them.

The Zionist terrorists were the first to commit political assassinations in the Middle East. The Stern Gang assassinated the British resident minister Lord Walter Moyne in Cairo on November 6, 1944. Yitzhak Shamir, the self-confessed terrorist, a member of the Irgun Z’vai Leumi and later on a member and leader of the Stern Gang, was one of the terrorists who planned the assassination. (18)

The Stern Gang, under Shamir’s leadership, also planned and executed the assassination of Count Folke Bernadotte, the United Nations Mediator on September 17, 1948, because he made suggestions to vary the partition plan of Palestine. John Kifner reported in the New York Times that two Israeli terrorists, Yehoshua Zetler and Meshulam Markover, had told Israeli television that they and two other members of the Stern Gang had on September 17, 1948, assassinated the Swedish United Nations Mediator, Count Folke Bernadotte and his aide, Colonel Andre Serot.(19 ) Shamir’s role in the assassination of Count Bernadotte was described in Dan Kurzman’s book, Genesis 1948:

Swedish Count Folke Bernadotte. Noting the killers wore Israeli army uniforms, the official UN report stated: “the provisional government of Israel must assume full responsibility.”

On the muggy afternoon of Friday, September 10, a car sped from Jerusalem to Tel Aviv carrying two men on a fateful mission. Yehoshua Zetler was driving Israel Sheib to a conference with Nathan Friedman-Yellin and Yitshak Yizernitzky (Shamir), the two other members of the Stern Group’s Central Committee. And Sheib was determined to leave the meeting with unanimous agreement on a “solution” to the Bernadotte threat – a solution that he had had in mind ever since the Stemist demonstration against the Mediator a month before.

As the car halted before a rundown apartment building on Ben Yehuda Street in Tel Aviv, Sheib told Zetler to wait for word from him. Then he climbed the stairs to Friedman – Yellin’s apartment, where his two colleagues were waiting for him. In the simply furnished living room, the three men began to discuss the expected new Bernadotte Plan.

“If the world listens to Bernadotte and pressures our weakling government into making compromises, we will have lost our State,” Sheib said. “We can’t let this happen. We must show the world that it is just as futile for the United Nations to interfere in our affairs as it was for the British. Demonstrations are not enough.”

Yizemitzky agreed. His view had always been, as he had explained to Stern members, that “a man who goes forth to kill another whom he does not know must believe one thing only – that by his act he will change the course of history.”

The three men (according to Sheib and Yizemitzky) then discussed Count Bernadotte in the light of this philosophy. And as they exchanged ideas over wine and fruit, it seemed that the clock had been set back four years – to that day in Spring, 1944, when the same three men had met in another dingy room to consider assassinating Sir Harold MacMichael, the British High Commissioner in Palestine, and Lord Moyne, the British Minister of State in the Middle East.

Within months, MacMichael had been wounded in an assassination attempt, and Lord Moyne murdered …

After a long discussion (as Sheib and Yizemitzky relate it) the three men agreed to order Bernadotte’s assassination. (20)

THE TAKING OF HOSTAGES

Towards the end of the British Mandate – when the alliance of British imperialism and Zionist colonialism, having served its purpose, was beginning to undergo the strains which finally led to its dissolution – the paramilitary and terrorist Zionist organisations turned against the British garrison and civil authorities in Palestine. On April 17, 1947 the Irgun gang hung two British army sergeants, Clifford Martin and Mervyn Paice near Netanya. Their bodies were booby-trapped with explosives to kill British soldiers who found them.

The Zionist leaders were the first terrorists who established the practice of hostage taking in the Middle East. The following are examples:

On June 18, 1946, Jewish terrorists kidnapped five British officers from the Officers Club in Tel Aviv. They were Capt. Spencer, Capt. Taylor, Capt. Warburton, Capt. Rea and F/Lt. Russell. On the same day, they kidnapped Major Chadwick.(21)

Major Chadwick escaped from his kidnappers on June 19, 1946. Capt. Rea and F/Lt. Russell were released by their Jewish captors on June 22, 1946, after spending the interim period bound, shackled and closely guarded by the terrorists in a cellar somewhere in Tel Aviv. F/Lt. Russell was thrown inside a large crate on the lorry where he found Capt. Rea who was gagged with adhesive tape and bleeding from a head wound. The two British hostages were placed later on in a cellar, guarded by four armed Jews; the officers had their hands tied and feet bound. Chains were placed on their feet and wrists. They were released on June 22, 1946.(22)

The Zionist leaders were the first terrorists in the Middle East who hanged hostages. On July 12, 1947 two British non-commissioned officers were abducted in Nathanya by a party of armed Jews. On July 15, 1947, the British Colonial Secretary made a statement about the two British non-commissioned officers who were kidnapped, taken hostage and then hanged by the Jewish terrorists. He stated:

It is with deep regret that I confirm the reports which have been current during the past 24 hours that the two British sergeants, Paice and Martin, abducted at Nathanya on 12th July, have been murdered by Jewish terrorists. I received today the following telegram from the High Commissioner for Palestine: “Most deeply regret to inform you that the two bodies were found at 9 o’clock this morning in an eucalyptus grove at Umm Uleiga, near Beit Lid. They were hanging from two trees. Notices were pinned to the bodies saying that the men had been hanged by the National Military Organization as British spies. The first body was cut down by an Army captain, and as he bent over it a small bomb exploded, injuring him in the face. The surrounding area was found to have been mined.”(23)

This ingenious method of terrorism was the product of the wicked minds of Menahem Begin and Yitzhak Shamir. It was Begin in consultation with Shamir and the Hagana leadership who gave the order to hang the two British sergeants.(24)

On December 29, 1946, British Army Major Brett was kidnapped in the Hotel Metropole in Nathanya by a party of armed Jews. He was flogged with 18 strokes and subsequently released. The same evening, two British Staff Sergeants, Wright and Ventham, were abducted by a party of armed Jews at the Arrnen Hotel in Tel Aviv and taken to the Zoological Gardens. Each was stripped naked and flogged with 18 strokes of the lash. On the same evening, five armed Jews entered the Cafe Tirzah at Rishonlezion and abducted a British Staff Sergeant who was taken away and flogged. He suffered severe bruises and abrasions and was admitted to the hospital for treatment.(25) Also on December 29, 1946, a British soldier, Private Gillam, was kidnapped from a cafe in Richon, and he too was flogged.(26)

The Hagana did not hesitate to kill hundreds of Jews to protest British policy in preventing illegal immigration to Palestine. The ship Patria arrived at Haifa in November 1947 with 1,700 illegal Jewish immigrants aboard. The Palestine Government decided to send the ship to the Mauritius Islands. On November 25, 1947, Jewish terrorists placed a bomb in the ship to prevent it from sailing. As a result, two hundred and fifty-two Jews were killed and many were injured. Menahem Begin confirmed that “the British authorities noted the fact that this was not an Irgun Z’vai Leumi operation; it was Haganah who had placed the bomb.”(27)

LETTER AND PARCEL-POST BOMBS

The Jewish terrorists in Palestine under the command of Menahem Begin and Yitzhak Shamir invented a new method of international terrorism which had no precedent in history, namely sending parcel-post bombs and letter bombs to British officials in London. The first parcel bomb was sent on September 3, 1947. Yitzhak Shamir was the mastermind behind this barbaric method. It was addressed to a high official of British Military Intelligence whom the Zionist terrorist organizations suspected of collecting damaging information about them. The parcel exploded in a post office in Howick Place, Victoria Street, London, seriously injuring two postmen.(289

On May 3, 1948, a parcel bomb was addressed to Roy Farran in London. Farran was a member of the British Anti-Terrorist Squad in Palestine who returned to England. The parcel was opened by Rex Farran, his 25-year-old younger brother. Many of his organs were blown to pieces, and he died instantly.(29)

It was established that the Stern Gang was responsible for this crime. Yitzhak Shamir was one of the triumvirate leadership of the Stern Gang.

The Stern Gang under the leadership of Yitzhak Shamir intensified its campaign of sending letter bombs to British officials. Between 4 and 6 June, 1947, 20 letter bombs were sent. The first shipments of eight letter bombs arrived in London on June 4, 1947. One was addressed to Sir Stafford Cripps, Minister of the Board of Trade, another to Mr. John Strachy, Minister of Food, neither of whom had any connection with the Palestine question. Both letters were intercepted by Scotland Yard and the bombs were defused.(30)

Three more letter bombs were intercepted by Scotland Yard on June 5, 1947. One was addressed to the Foreign Secretary, Ernest Bevin, who was abhorred by the Zionists for his balanced and fair stand on the Palestine question. Letter bombs were also addressed to Anthony Eden, former Foreign Secretary, and Arthur Greenwood, Minister without Portfolio.(31)

The following are examples of the barbaric methods of terrorism committed by the Jewish terrorist organizations from 1939-1945:

(a) Placing bombs in Arab markets and cafes, killing many civilians, mostly women and children.

(b) Placing landmines and exploding them by remote control.

(c) Blowing up of buildings and police stations.

(d) Placing bombs in cinemas where many people were killed or injured.

(e) Placing bombs in railway stations, markets and government offices and exploding them, killing and injuring many innocent people.

(f) Placing bombs in trucks and cars filled with explosives near buildings and exploding them, thereby killing and injuring many innocent people.

(g) Throwing bombs into passing cars and into Arab crowds, killing and injuring many civilians.

(h) Blowing up of Arab houses and hotels, killing hundreds of men, women and children.

Details of the Zionist terrorist crimes in Palestine from 1939-1948 are set out in Chapters 4, 5, 6 and 7 of this encyclopedia. The authoritative descriptions of these crimes were obtained from the Foreign Office files, Colonial Office files and War Office files from the Public Record Office, Kew Gardens, Surrey England. The writer personally selected these files which were photocopied. Each incident recorded in these four chapters are verbatim records. They were taken from reports sent from the High Commissioner for Palestine to the Colonial Secretary in London and from the Officer Commander of British forces in Palestine to the Secretary of War in London. Unfortunately, not all documents about Jewish terrorism in the Colonial Office, War Office and Foreign Office files have been declassified. It was noted in the record: “Retained by the Department.” The writer spoke with the Director of the Public Record Office regarding examining these files and he told him, “They will be classified for the next seventy five years.”

Unfortunately, not all documents about Jewish terrorism in the Colonial Office, War Office and Foreign Office files have been declassified … the Director of the Public Record Office [stated], “They will be classified for the next seventy five years.”

In 1948 the Zionist leaders started to execute their premeditated plan to expel the Palestinians from Palestine and to usurp their homes, lands and all their worldly possessions. In implementing this plan they committed the following war crimes, crimes against humanity and genocide as set out in Chapters 9 to 14 of this encyclopedia:

    1. They committed hundreds of massacres throughout Palestine.
    2. They erased 492 Arab small towns and villages and Bedouin localities from the map of Palestine and converted them into Jewish settlements.
    3. They usurped Arab houses and apartments in twelve large towns and cities for settling Jews.
    4. They committed looting, pillage, plunder and spoliation of the personal and real properties of Palestinians in twelve large towns and cities and 526 small towns and villages.
    5. They destroyed, desecrated and usurped Muslim Holy Places in Palestine and violated the religious rights of Muslims.
    6. They destroyed and desecrated Christian Holy Places in Palestine and violated the religious rights of Christians.

In 1967 Zionist leaders committed a war of aggression against neighbouring Arab countries, occupying the West Bank and Gaza, namely the remaining 20 per cent of Palestine. From 1967 to 1989 they committed war crimes, crimes against humanity and genocide against the Palestinians in the West Bank and Gaza and neighbouring Arab countries as set forth in Chapters 16-33 of this encyclopedia:

    1. Murder, massacres, systematic terrorism, kidnapping and other war crimes and crimes against humanity committed by the Israelis in the West Bank and Gaza and neighbouring Arab countries.
    2. Looting, plunder, pillage and spoliation and other war crimes, crimes against humanity and genocide committed in the Gaza Strip.
    3. Plunder and usurpation of Palestinian lands, natural and water resources and the establishment of illegal Jewish settlements in the West Bank and Gaza Strip.
    4. Willful destruction of the Palestinian economy in the West Bank and Gaza Strip.
    5. Demolition and sealing of Palestinian homes.
    6. Collective punishment, curfews, checkpoints, mass round-ups and closures.
    7. Establishing concentration camps and political prisons.
    8. Torture and inhuman treatment of Palestinian and Lebanese prisoners.
    9. Torture and inhuman treatment of Palestinian women.
    10. Illegal administrative detention of Palestinians.
    11. Illegal town arrest orders of Palestinian families.
    12. Inhuman separation of Palestinian families.
    13. Jewish settler terrorism against Palestinians in the West Bank and Gaza.
    14. Brutal measures, including murder, beating and use of toxic gas to suppress the Intifada.
    15. War crimes in Lebanon in the Zionist wars of aggression of 1978 and 1982.
    16. Wanton bombing of Palestinian refugee camps in Jordan and Lebanon.
    17. Mossad terrorism, including murder and kidnapping, against Palestinians and others in Europe and the Middle East.
    18. Piracy and terrorism at sea against unarmed vessels.

ZIONISTS ACCUSE ARABS OF “TERRORISM” IN ORDER TO COVER UP THEIR OWN CRIMES

In order to cover up their terrorism, war crimes and crimes against humanity committed against the Palestinians from 1939 to 1948 and from 1948 to the present, Israeli leaders in occupied Palestine and their vociferous lobbyists in the United States managed to delude President Ronald Reagan, Secretary of State George P. Shultz and a majority of Congressional leaders into believing that international “terrorism” is the root of all evil. They whipped up a frenzy both in the American Administration and Congress on the subject of terrorism, intentionally branding Palestinians, Arabs and Muslims as terrorists. They succeeded in convincing both the United States Administration and Congress that the Palestine Liberation Organization is a terrorist organization and should not be a party to any peace process, thereby perpetuating an agreement made between Henry Kissinger and Yitzhak Rabin in 1975 and fulfilling Israel’s determination to sabotage and frustrate the peace process. They know that without the P.L.O. no peaceful settlement to the Palestine problem can be achieved. It is a mockery to read in American newspapers that Israeli leaders such as Yitzhak Shamir, Shimon Peres, Yitzhak Rabin and Ariel Sharon met with President Reagan, and that thereafter the White House issued a Press Release stating that President Reagan and Mr. Peres or Mr. Shamir

“discussed the evil scourge of terrorism which has claimed so many Israeli, American and Arab victims and brought tragedy to so many others. We agreed that terrorism must not blunt our efforts to achieve peace in the Middle East.”(32)

President Reagan proclaimed, “Terrorists and those who support them, must and will, be held to account,”(33) yet President Reagan knowingly, or unknowingly, ignored the fact that his Israeli “strategic allies” were themselves master terrorists and war criminals and that his Administration was an accessory to Israeli crimes because it aided and abetted the Israelis in the commission of these crimes by giving them billions of dollars and large quantities of the most sophisticated weapons and by politically supporting them in the United Nations. George P. Shultz, the former United States Secretary of State, made himself a Zionist tool and became a Zionist champion for his steadfast campaign against terrorism, despite the obvious contradictions in his position.

Joseph C. Harsch, a highly respected American journalist, wrote an article in the Christian Science Monitor under the title “Preferential Treatment for Israel?” in which a few of these contradictions are spelled out:

The Department of State in Washington has denied an entry visa to Yasser Arafat, chairman of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), on the ground that he “knows of, condones, and lends support” to acts of terrorism and “he therefore is an accessory to such terrorism.”

If this logic were to be applied universally, the Prime Minister of Israel would be refused a visa to enter the United States. Yitzhak Shamir was originally a member of a Jewish terrorist group called the Irgun, which was headed by former Prime Minister Menachem Begin. Mr. Shamir later moved over to the even more radical Stern gang.

Whether Mr. Arafat ever specifically sanctioned an act of terrorism against unarmed civilians is disputed. Israel, and the US government, assume he has. PLO spokesmen say that terrorist acts committed by Palestinians or their friends and sympathizers among other Arab communities have been done by fanatical individuals or groups over which Arafat has no control.

That Shamir and Begin have been leaders of terrorist bands that committed many atrocities is beyond question. Shamir himself has defended the various assassinations committed by the Irgun and Stern gangs on the ground that “it was the only way we could operate, because we were so small. So it was more efficient and more moral to go to selected targets.” The selected targets in those early days of the founding of the state of Israel included Lord Moyne, British resident minister in Cairo in 1944, and the Swedish Count, Folke Bernadotte, on September 17, 1948. Not all Begin and Shamir targets were so precise. The first act of terrorism in the long Arab-Israeli wars, which involved many victims, was the bombing of the King David Hotel in Jerusalem on July 2, 1946. Many women were among the 91 people killed.

On April 9, 1948, a combined force of Irgun and Stern gangs committed “a particularly brutal massacre of some 250 Arab residents (of the village of Deir Yassin), many of them women and children,” according to Evan M. Wilson, author of Decisions on Palestine. Accounts by Red Cross and United Nations observers who visited the scene said that the houses were first set on fire and then the residents were shot down as they came out to escape the flames.

In a book titled Taking Sides, published by William Morrow and Co., Inc., author Stephen Green tells of the “Lavon Affair,” which shook more than one Israeli Cabinet. The affair began in June 1954, with the planting of a ring of spies (“moles”) in Cairo, ordering it to begin sabotage operations against selected Egyptian, British and American targets. The Alexandria post office was firebombed on July 2. On July 14, the US Information Agency offices in Cairo and Alexandria were damaged by fire started by phosphorus incendiary devices, as was a British-owned theatre.

Members of the spy ring were caught, and they confessed. They had been planted by Modiin, the Israeli military intelligence organization. The purpose, presumably, was to sabotage Egyptian relations with the US and Britain. Various commissions of inquiry into the affair conducted in Israel were never able to decide whether or not Israeli Defense Minister Pinchas Lavon authorized the operation.

On October 14-15, 1953, an Israeli force attacked the unarmed Arab village of Kibya, in the demilitarized zone, killing 53 civilians. The details were so gruesome that the US joined in a UN condemnation of the Israeli action and, for the first and only time, suspended US aid to Israel in reprisal.

Israeli armed forces invaded Lebanon on June 6, 1982. Arab casualties vastly outnumbered Israeli casualties. During the invasion, there were brutal massacres of Arabs at Sabra and Shatila camps for which the Israeli High Court held Israeli military officers responsible.

Arafat may well have sanctioned one or more acts of individual terrorism. But so have the leaders of Israel, who are always welcome in Washington. Arafat wanted to come to the US to make a speech at the UN. He has just modified his bargaining position to include implicit recognition of Israel. Prospects of a new peace initiative are regarded as encouraging. Denying him the visa may sabotage the new peace effort.(34)

U.S. CONGRESS ADOPTS MEASURES AGAINST THE PLO

On questions relating to the Middle East, eighty per cent of the U.S. Congress is controlled by the Zionist lobby in Washington comprised of AIPAC (American-Israel Public Affairs Committee) and the Presidents’ Conference (Conference of Presidents of Major Jewish American Organizations). When these organizations decided that the offices of the Palestine Liberation Organization in Washington and the PLO Observer Mission to the United Nations must be closed, members of Congress competed to excel each other in showing obedience and loyalty to the Zionist lobby. Between April and June 1987 five bills were introduced that would close the PLO offices or restrict the activities of PLO personnel in the United States. The bills were referred to Committee, but no hearings were held, and none of the bills was reported out of the Committee. The consolidated bill was known as the Anti-Terrorism Act. On May 14, 1987, Senator Charles Grassley (R-Iowa) introduced the Anti-Terrorism Act as Amendment Number 940 to the Foreign Relations Authorization Act, Fiscal Year 1988, and the amendment was agreed to by a voice vote.(35)

Kenneth R. Thomas, Legislative Attorney, American Law Division, of the Congressional Research Service of the Library of Congress, stated in his report for Congress, the Anti-Terrorism Act of 1987:

Although the House Foreign Relations Authorization Act contained no similar provisions, Representative Burton introduced a motion to instruct the conferees on the Foreign Relations Authorization Act to accept the language of the Anti-Terrorism Act, which was agreed to by the House.(36)

The Anti-Terrorism Act was agreed upon by the conferees, and its provisions were set forth without comment in the conference report. The Foreign Relations Authorization Act, Fiscal Years 1988 and 1989, containing the Anti-Terrorism Act, was signed by President Reagan on December 22, 1987.(37)

This proves how the Zionist lobby manipulated the U.S. Congress into adopting, in an abnormal legislative procedure, without debate or discussion of any kind, an act against the Palestine Liberation Organization which had international ramifications and drew worldwide condemnation, at the very time the United States Congress was rewarding Israel with three billion dollars of financial and military aid.

The PLO offices in Washington, D.C. were closed by the order of the State Department, but the offices of the PLO UN Observer Mission in New York were not closed. The United Nations General Assembly obtained the Advisory Opinion of the International Court of Justice that it would be a violation of the Headquarters Agreement between the United Nations and the United States. At the same time, the United States District Court of New York ruled “that the language of the Headquarters Agreement and long-standing practice under the Agreement obligated the United States to ‘refrain from impairing the function’ of the PLO Observer Mission Office in New York.”(38) This decision by U.S. District Court Judge Edmund L. Palmieri was not appealed by the United States Administration.

DISCUSSION OF ZIONIST TERRORISM IN THE HOUSE OF COMMONS

The terrorist acts by the Zionists were thoroughly discussed in the House of Commons in London. Members of Parliament frequently asked questions about Zionist terrorist acts which were answered by responsible British Cabinet Ministers. Parliamentary debates record in detail Zionist terrorist activities in Palestine and their condemnations of them. On November 17, 1944 Prime Minister Winston Churchill described the Zionist terrorists as “a new set of gangsters worthy of Nazi Germany.”(39)

Following are excerpts from House of Commons debates on the Zionist outrages committed in Palestine:

On February 25, 1944 the question of Jewish terrorists in Palestine was raised in the House of Commons.

Captain Ramsay asked the Secretary of State for the Colonies (1) whether he has any information which he can give the House concerning the recent murder of Inspector Green and Constable Ewer by Jewish terrorists in Palestine; (2) whether he has traced the source of any of the literature or funds now at the disposal of Jewish terrorists.

Mr. Emrys-Evans answered: On the night of the 14th – 15th February in Haifa, British inspector R. D. Green and British constable H. E. Ewer challenged two suspicious characters carrying a parcel, who turned out to be Jews. So far as can be ascertained, while the inspector was examining the parcel, one of the Jews shot him and the constable with a pistol. Both were wounded and fell to the ground, and the Jews ran away. One of them turned back, however, and fired at the policemen as they lay on the ground, and the Jews then made good their escape. The parcel was found to contain Stern Group pamphlets. I very much regret that both of these gallant officers died on the 16th February as the result of this dastardly attack on them while in the execution of their duty.

The Stern Group, to which the assassins apparently belonged, is a secret terrorist organization of Jewish extremists formed in Palestine about the middle of 1940. Soon after the Group was formed, its members entered upon a campaign of organised terrorism primarily with the object of obtaining funds for the furtherance of their so-called political campaign.(40)

On April 5, 1944 the question of the criminal acts by Jewish extremists in Palestine was raised in the House of Commons.

Captain Plugge asked the Secretary of State for the Colonies whether he will make a statement on the terrorist outrages in Palestine and their object.

Colonel Stanley (answered): I regret having to report that since 13th March casualties among police have been nine killed and five wounded or injured. These criminal acts are committed by members of a secret organization of Jewish extremists known as the Stern Group, and members of the Irgun Z’vai Leumi, the military organization of the Revisionists.(41)

On September 26, 1944 the question of terrorist outrages in Palestine was raised in the House of Commons.

Captain Ramsay asked the Secretary of State for the Colonies whether he can give any information concerning the attempt to assassinate Sir Harold MacMichael (the High Commissioner) in Palestine on the afternoon of 8th August; whether any of the terrorists were apprehended; and with what group or groups they are connected.

Colonel Stanley (answered): As regards the first part of the Question, I have nothing to add to the official statements published in the Press. A considerable number of arrests have been made. The primary responsibility for the outrage is attributed to the Stern Group.

Captain Ramsey asked the Secretary of State for the Colonies (1) how many British police and officials have been assassinated since 1st January by Jewish terrorists in Palestine; and whether he will give their names and the amounts of compensation paid to their next-of-kin; (2) how many British police and officials have been wounded since 1st January by Jewish terrorists in Palestine; and whether he will give their names and the amounts of compensation paid to their next-of-kin.

Colonel Stanley (answered): Details of British police and officials killed or wounded between 1st January and 3rd May have already been given in reply to previous questions on the subject. Since the 3rd May Major K. I. Nicholl, Aide-de-Camp to the High Commissioner, and British Sergeant J. H. Smith, were wounded when an attempt was made on the life of the High Commissioner on the 8th August, and British Constable W. J. Turner was slightly wounded in an incident on 22nd August.(42)

On October 11, 1944 the question of terrorist activities in Palestine was raised in the House of Commons.

Mr. Hamilton Kerr asked the Secretary of State for the Colonies whether he has any statement to make regarding recent terrorist outrages in Palestine.

Colonel Stanley (answered): There has unfortunately been a recrudescence of Jewish terrorist activities in Palestine. On the night of 27th September attacks were made on four police stations by members of the Irgun Z’vai Leumi, the military organization of the New Zionist organization. They were planned and executed by a force estimated to have been at least 150 strong and armed with bombs and automatic weapons. There were casualties among Palestinian police and civilians and considerable damage was caused to police buildings …. These attacks, the object of which is to further political aims, seriously impede the war effort of the United Nations and can do nothing but harm to the Jewish cause …. Verbal denunciation is not, in itself, enough. What we want, and what we shall hope to get, is the active collaboration of the whole, of the Jewish population in Palestine.(43)

On November 9, 1944 the previously mentioned assassination of Lord Moyne was discussed in the House of Commons. The Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, Mr. Anthony Eden, stated:

On Tuesday last, my right hon. Friend the Prime Minister undertook to inform the House as soon as fuller details about the assassination of Lord Moyne had been received. It has now been reported from Cairo that the two prisoners have made the following confession:

“We are members of the Fighters for the Freedom of Israel organization and what we have done was done on the instructions of this organisation.”

The organisation is that known as the Stern Group.(44)

On November 17, 1944 the Prime Minister Winston Churchill made a statement in the House of Commons on terrorist activities in Palestine in which he said, inter alia, the following:

I have now to make a short statement about Palestine. On Thursday last, my right Don. Friend the Foreign Secretary gave the House a full report of the assassination of Lord Moyne. This shameful crime has shocked the world. It has affected none more strongly than those, like myself, who, in the past, have been consistent friends of the Jews and constant architects of their future. If our dreams of Zionism are to end in the smoke of assassins’ pistols and our labours for its future to produce only a new set of gangsters worthy of Nazi Germany, many like myself will have to reconsider the position we have maintained so consistently and so long in the past. If there is to be any hope of a peaceful and successful future for Zionism, these wicked activities must cease, and those responsible for them must be destroyed root and branch. The primary responsibility must, of course, rest with the Palestine authorities under His Majesty’s Government. These authorities are already engaged in an active and thorough campaign against the Stern Gang and the larger, but hardly less dangerous, Irgun Z’vai Leumi.(45)

On December 6, 1944 the question of terrorist outrages in Palestine was raised in the House of Commons:

Earl Winterton asked the Secretary of State for the Colonies if he can state the number and give details of the outrages committed in Palestine by terrorists since 1 st January last.

Colonel Stanley (answered): The following is a summary of terrorist outrages in Palestine since 1st January, 1944:

29th January.

Explosions which occurred at the Government Transport Agency Car Park at Jaffa wrecked one lorry and damaged others. A Jew arrested near the scene admitted to being a member of the Irgun. The Irgun openly accepted the responsibility in a letter to the Hebrew Press.

3rd February.

An Arab taxi-driver surprised two Jews tampering with a wall near the entrance to St. George’s Cathedral, Jerusalem, and warned a Police patrol who pursued the Jews; the latter opened fire fatally wounding an Arab civilian. The Jews escaped. Subsequent examination of the Cathedral wall indicated preparations to plant an electrically-operated infernal machine in the wall.

12th, 13th February.

Bomb outrages were perpetrated at Jerusalem, Haifa and Tel-Aviv against Immigration Offices causing damage to buildings and to archives at Jerusalem and Tel-Aviv. There were no casualties. The Irgun openly admitted responsibility for the outrages in a letter to the Hebrew Press.

14th, 15th February.

In Haifa two Jews carrying a suspicious parcel were challenged by a British Inspector and British Constable. The Jews opened fire, fatally wounding both Police Officers, and made good their escape. The parcel contained Stern Group literature.

24th February.

A bomb placed in a runway outside the garage of a Deputy Superintendent of Police exploded under his car as he drove out. The car was wrecked, but the officer escaped with superficial injuries. A second bomb planted by the side of the road was exploded as a Police traffic car containing 4 Police Officers was passing. The car was damaged, but the occupants escaped serious injury. A third unexploded bomb was subZionist Terrorism and Crimes in Palestine 1939-1945 sequently found concealed at the side of another road. These outrages were thought to be attributable to the Stern Group.

26th February.

Explosions occurred at the Income Tax Offices at Tel – Aviv and Haifa causing extensive damage to buildings. An unexploded bomb was also found at the Income Tax Office, Jerusalem. There were no casualties.

2nd March.

A British constable saw two men posting pamphlets in a Tel-Aviv street. On approaching them he was shot in the back by a third man. The assailants escaped. Pamphlets were those issued by the Stern Group.

13th March.

A Jewish Constable was murdered at Petah Tikvah.

16th March.

The Police challenged a man in a Tel-Aviv street who drew a pistol and made off. The Police opened fire, whereupon the man threw away his pistol and a package he was carrying. The package contained three sticks of gelignite, a fuse detonator and rivets. The pistol was loaded. The man was captured and subsequently identified as a leading member of the Stern Group who had been wanted by the Police for over three years.

19th March.

The Police saw a suspicious looking character carrying an attache case, standing at a street corner in Tel Aviv. When the man saw that he was being watched he ran away and dashed into a house with the Police in pursuit. He tried to escape on to the roof but, finding the door locked, turned and fired at the Police. They returned fire and killed him. There were no Police casualties. The attache case contained ten rounds of revolver ammunition and Stern Group literature.

23rd March.

At Tel-Aviv, three British police were killed and one slightly wounded in separate incidents in one street. At Haifa bombs were exploded at police headquarters. Three British constables were found dead when extricated from the wreckage, and three injured. At Jerusalem a number of men wearing articles of police uniform entered police headquarters by means of a ladder. They were disturbed by an assistant superintendent of police, who opened fire. The intruders returned fire and killed him. Bombs which the party had brought with them and deposited subsequently exploded causing serious damage but no further casualties. At Jaffa explosives were discovered in an air-raid shelter below police headquarters. The building was evacuated and shortly afterwards explosions occurred damaging the building but causing no casualties.

1st April.

A British inspector, accompanied by a Palestinian police sergeant, acting on information received that a wounded man was lying in ahouse at Haifa, entered the House to find within four Jews, one of whom was wounded. Three men escaped through the window. The wounded Jew threw a hand grenade which fatally wounded the sergeant and slightly wounded the inspector. The Jew subsequently escaped but was afterwards found in a Jewish hospital in a dangerous condition. A search of the house revealed military uniforms, arms, electrical appliances and equipment for the production of Stern Group literature.

5th April.

A mobile police patrol in Tel-Aviv approached a man in order to question him. The man opened fire and wounded a British constable. The assailant, who was wounded, was arrested.

6th April.

Acting on information received a police party surrounded a house in the Yavniel Jewish Colony near Tiberias where wounded men were reported to be hiding. Firing was opened from the house and after exchange of shots two Jews in the house were killed. Both were found to be armed with pistols. There were no police casualties.

9th April.

Three unknown persons passing a British police billet in Northern Tel-Aviv fired shots at two British constables on duty outside the billet, simultaneously throwing a grenade. Two British constables and a Jewish constable were slightly wounded. The assailants made off before assistance arrived.

10th April.

A determined, but unsuccessful, attempt was made on the life of a deputy superintendent of police, who was fired on when driving in Tel-Aviv on the way to divisional police headquarters. The officer, who returned fire, escaped injury. The assailants made off before assistance arrived.

10th May.

A Jewish police constable of the C.I.D. was shot dead by an unknown assailant when leaving his house in Tel-Aviv. The assailant escaped.

17th May.

On the night of the 17th May, three Arabs in a taxi were held up outside Ramallah by a road block consisting of boards studded with nails which punctured the tyres. When the taxi stopped an explosion occurred which blew it off the road. On extricating themselves the Arabs were surrounded by 30 Jews dressed in khaki shorts and shirts who ordered them to proceed on their way. When the Arabs walked away the Jews, who were armed with submachine guns, rifles and pistols, opened fire wounding two Arabs. A police party which turned out on hearing the shots found the taxi and the Arabs, but the assailants had made off. Immediately thereafter eight men dressed in khaki entered the Broadcasting Station at Ramallah overpowering and disarming the guard. After unsuccessfully questioning the operator in Hebrew as to the use of the transmitter and the best way of wrecking the building they fired a number of shots causing damage to apparatus and eventually left the building. There were no casualties.

18th May.

A few hours later, a police ambush patrol on a road in the foothills north-east of Lydda was fired on by the occupants of a truck approaching from the Lydda direction. The patrol returned the fire, some of their bullets penetrating the windscreen. The vehicle stopped and about six persons alighted and disappeared in the darkness. Shortly afterwards two more trucks coming from the same direction pulled up some distance away and about 18 persons of both sexes got out and ran away. The three trucks were found to contain a small quantity of gelignite and boards studded with long nails. It was later learned that on the 17th May three truck-owners from Petah Tikvah were commissioned for work at a point outside Petah Tikvah. On arrival they were attacked, removed from their trucks and bound; they were released on the morning of the 18th May.

14th July.

An attack was made by terrorists on a building in the centre of Jerusalem which houses the Jerusalem District Police Headquarters and the District of Jerusalem and Bethlehem Land Registry. The attack began with a number of minor explosions, accompanied by shooting and throwing of hand grenades. Three large explosions took place in successions doing extensive damage to buildings and starting a conflagration. The ground floor was completely gutted. Between 15 and 25 persons took part in the attack, some of them dressed in clothes resembling police uniforms. They used one or more taxis which had been seized from their drivers at the point of the pistol, and besides employing gelignite bombs and hand grenades appear to have been equipped with tommy-guns and automatic pistols. Responsibility for this outrage was afterwards acknowledged in pamphlets distributed by the Irgun. An Arab supernumerary constable was also dangerously wounded. Two British constables were detained in hospital suffering from shock and six other British police received superficial injuries. Jerusalem District Land Registry records were very extensively damaged by fire and from water used in fire brigade operations, and it was found necessary to close the Registry sine die.

8th August.

The High Commissioner was motoring with Lady Mac-Michael to a farewell function when the car, under police escort, was ambushed just outside Jerusalem on the Jerusalem-Jaffa road and fire was opened with tommy-guns from the side of the road. The High Commissioner was slightly wounded in the hand and thigh and his A.D.C. was shot through the lung and seriously hurt. The police driver was also seriously wounded. The police subsequently discovered at the spot a quantity of hand grenades, two submachine guns, a sack containing bombs capable of being exploded electrically from a distance, and miscellaneous ammunition, explosives and equipment. Several men were seen running from the engagement and entering the Jewish Settlement of Givat Shaul; this was later confirmed by police dogs. Preparations at the scene of the crime had, apparently, been made under cover of bogus survey operations. The police cordoned the Settlement immediately, but no-one there volunteered or gave any useful information.

22nd August.

The Jaffa Divisional Police Headquarters and two police stations on the Jaffa-Tel-Aviv border were attacked by armed Jews. The attackers, in three separate parties each numbering about a dozen men, were armed with home-made bombs, grenades and submachine guns, and one party arrived and left in a truck. The way was prepared for the attack by mining of the roads and rail crossings in the neighbourhood and by laying boobytraps. A large ambush party lay near the Divisional Headquarters. Where road junctions were mined posters had been left bearing warnings by the Irgun. The attackers were driven off by small arms fire, except at one police station where the Palestinian personnel on guard were out-numbered. Fourteen rifles were taken from this station. Minor damage was done to the buildings by bombs. Casualties were one British constable wounded, one Arab constable and one Jewish temporary additional constable seriously injured. Six suspects were arrested, one of whom was wounded by police fire and was seen to throw away a bomb.

27th September.

Attacks were made on four police stations by members of the Irgun. They were planned and executed by a force estimated to have beenat least 150 strong, armed with bombs and automatic weapons. There were casualties among police and civilians, and considerable damage was caused to police buildings. Casualties were inflicted on the terrorists, and two men were arrested, one of whom had been wounded. Quantities of ammunition, two bombs and Irgun flags were seized.

29th September.

A senior British police officer of C.I.D. was assassinated while walking to his office in Jerusalem. The assailants escaped.

5th, 6th October.

The Tel-Aviv offices and stores of the Department of Light Industries were raided by 50 persons, some of whom were armed, and textiles valued at 100,000 Pounds Sterling were removed. The raiders announced themselves as being members of the Irgun.(46)

On November 16, 1945 the question of rioting in Tel-Aviv by Jews was raised in the House of Commons. Earl Winterton asked:

Mr. Deputy-Speaker, with your permission, and at the suggestion of the right hon. Gentleman the Secretary of State for the Colonies, I desire to ask the Under-Secretary a question of which I have given him Private Notice: whether he has any further information to give on the recent rioting in Tel Aviv.

The Under-Secretary of State for the Colonies (Mr. Creech Jones): On the evening of the 14th November, rioting occurred in Tel-Aviv, following mass meetings by Jews in protestation against the Government statement of policy. The offices of the District Administration, the Control of Light Industries and the Income Tax Department were attacked and set on fire. Damage was extensive. An attack on the Post Office was frustrated by police and military action. As six baton charges were insufficient to disperse the crowd, soldiers who had been brought up to reinforce the police fired ten rounds. The crowd withdrew. Other crowds stoned the police and soldiers. After verbal warning and after three soldiers had been injured, four rounds were fired with the desired effect … Yesterday the curfew imposed on Tel-Aviv was broken by a large number of rioters. Cars were overturned, including a military lorry which was burned out, a section of the railway line was torn up, a branch post office and a number of shops were wrecked and looted. A branch of Barclays Bank was also wrecked but the rioters failed to force the safes. During these incidents, troops were compelled to open fire on threatening crowds after police had been unable to disperse them with baton charges. On two occasions home-made grenades were thrown at troops. Thirty arrests were made for breaking curfew, and five adults and five juveniles were arrested for rioting.(47)

A PROPOSED ALLIANCE BETWEEN THE STERN GANG AND NAZI GERMANY

On January 11, 1941, Avraham Stern proposed a formal military pact between the National Military Organization (NMO), of which Yitzhak Shamir, the current Prime Minister of Israel, was a prominent leader, and the Nazi Third Reich. This proposal became known as the Ankara document, having been discovered after the war in the files of the German Embassy in Turkey. It stated the following:

The evacuation of the Jewish masses from Europe is a precondition for solving the Jewish question; but this can only be made possible and complete through the settlement of these masses in the home of the Jewish people, Palestine, and through the establishment of a Jewish state in its historical boundaries ….

The NMO, which is well-acquainted with the goodwill of the German Reich government and its authorities towards Zionist activity inside Germany and towards Zionist emigration plans, is of the opinion that:

  1. Common interests could exist between the establishment of a New Order in Europe in conformity with the German concept, and the true national aspirations of the Jewish people as they are embodied by the NMO.
  2. Cooperation between the new Germany and renewed folkish-national Hebraium would be possible and
  3. The establishment of the historical Jewish state on a national and totalitarian basis, and bound by a treaty with the German Reich, would be in the interest of a maintained and strengthened future German position in the Near East.

Proceeding from these considerations, the NMO in Palestine, under the condition that the above-mentioned national aspirations of the Israeli freedom movement are recognized on the side of the German Reich, offers to actively take part in the war on Germany’s side.(48)

CHAPTER FOUR – part 2 of 2

LIST OF ACRONYMS USED IN PUBLIC RECORD OFFICE REPORTS

AB – Airborne

AFS – Air Formation Signals

BD – Battledress

Bde – Brigade

Bde Fd Amb – Brigade Field Ambulance

Bdy – Boundary

Bn – Battalion

CID – Counter Intelligence Division

Civ – Civilian

Col – Colonel

Comd – Command

Comd Pro Coy – Command Provost Company

Coy – Company

Cwt – Hundred weight

F/Lt. – Flight Lieutenant

Fwd – Forwarded

Gd – Guard

HLI – Highland Light Infantry

Inf Bde – Infantry Brigade

IPC – Iraq Petroleum Company

1 S LAN R – 1st South Lancashire Regiment

IZL – Irgun Z’vai Leumi

JSP – Jewish Settlement Police

K.D. – Coldmarine Guards

LHI – Fighters for Freedom of Israel (Stern Gang)

MC – Military car

MI – Military Intelligence

Mov Camp – Movements camp

MR – Map Reference

NCO – Non-Commissioned Officer

NMO – National Military Organization

OR – Ordinary Regular (Soldier)

Para – Paratroops

Pte. – Private

RAP – Royal Air Force

RE – Royal Engineer

RHQ – Regimental Headquarters

Rfn – Rifleman

SA – Small arms

Sta – Station

Sigmn – Signalman

Tps – Troops

Tp train – Troop train

Trg camp – Training Camp

Wksps – Workshops

REPORTS FROM THE PUBLIC RECORD OFFICE, LONDON 1939-1945

Palestine Police Force wanted poster of Irgun and Lehi members. Menachem Begin appears at the top left.

Arsenal of arms in a Zionist colony in 1946 seized by the British.

12 APRIL 1939

Following land mine explosion in Tiberias on the 12th April military authorities have imposed a fine of 200 pounds on Akran Jewish quarter of the town where the explosion took place and have ordered a curfew on the quarter until the fine is paid. [FO 371|3244]

7 JUNE 1939

Outrages by Jewish extremists have continued. On 7th June 2 bomb explosions in telephone manhole at Tel Aviv damaged a number of telephone lines. 2 bombs also exploded on railway line near Tel Aviv station doing little damage. On same date Jew shot dead an Arab in Jerusalem. [FO 371/23244]

8 JUNE 1939

On 8th June about 2200 hours 13 time bombs exploded Jerusalem all (?directed) at electric light system. 5 transformers damaged but little interruption to lighting service. On 9th June Jewess arrested placing time bomb near central prison Jerusalem. [FO 371/3244]

15 JUNE 1939

Early this morning 3 Arabs were shot at by an unknown Jew at Jaffa, one of them being killed and two wounded. Shortly afterwards 2 bombs were thrown by 3 Jews at an Arab shack. One exploded harmlessly and the other failed to explode. Following these incidents Military Commander of the Southern District has prohibited traffic into and out of Tel Aviv from 12 noon today until 7 p.m. tomorrow. Last night 17 Jews were arrested in Tel Aviv for curfew breaking. [FO 371/23244]

17 JUNE 1939

This morning two Jews in Tel Aviv fired with revolvers on a party of Arabs in a cart while a third threw a bomb. One Arab was slightly injured. FO 371|3244]

19 JUNE 1939

A bomb exploded in Haifa Vegetable Market at 0600 hours this morning killing 18 Arabs including 6 women and 3 children and wounded 24. Further bomb explosions occurred in a telephone kiosk in Hadar Hacarmel and in a telephone cable manhole. [FO 371|3244]

29 JUNE 1939

Following the killing and wounding of a number of Arabs in six separate shooting attacks by Jews this morning the Military Commander of the Southern District has prohibited all traffic to and from Tel Aviv and Rehovoth and Petah Tikva from noon today until 4 p.m. tomorrow. They all occurred about 0500 hours as follows. One Arab fatally shot by an unknown Jew in the Jaffa Road; another in King Solomon’s Street Tel Aviv. In the former (groups omitted) was wounded by a stray bullet.

Three Arabs fired upon, two being killed one wounded by two unknown Jews near Rarnatgan.

Two Arabs fired upon, one being killed one wounded by two unknown Jews outside Petahtikva.

A party of Arabs fired upon in Rehovoth by unknown, four being killed one wounded.

Four Arabs fired upon two being killed two wounded by unknown near Rishon Lezion Settlement. [FO 371/23244]

30 JUNE 1939

Just before 1000 today a bomb of Jewish origin exploded in an Arab cafe in Jerusalem wounding one Arab dangerously 4 severely and six slightly. As a consequence the military Commander has ordered that all Jewish cafes in Jerusalem shall be closed every evening at 8 p.m. until further orders. In addition, all Jewish traffic in and out of Jerusalem by the Jaffa road is stopped from noon today until 6 p.m. on Sunday. [FO 371/23244]

3 JULY 1939

Following explosion of a time bomb in an Arab Cafe in Haifa yesterday afternoon killing one Arab and injuring 35, the Military Commander has closed all Jewish places of entertainment there such as Cinemas, Cafes, Dance Halls etc. for an indefinite period and has prohibited all Jewish taxis and private motorcars from entering or leaving town planning area of Haifa. [FO 371/23244]

4 JULY 1939

Two Jews threw a bomb into an Arab Lorry near Rahavia quarter of Jerusalem early this morning. Three Arabs were injured the Jews escaping to Rahavia. As a punishment the Military Commander has ordered that all Jewish traffic unless granted a special pass will be prohibited from using Ramleh Jerusalem road until four tomorrow. [FO 371/23244]

6 AUGUST 1939

On night 6th August party of Jews demolished Arab houses in Beit-Lidd. Houses had been marked by police dogs following land mine explosion on 29th July which wounded 5 Jews. This is the second incident of this type in Haifa area. [FO 371/23245]

9 AUGUST 1939

On 9th August new police coastal patrol launch was sunk at sea by explosion. One British sergeant killed one British and one Jewish constable injured. Explosion believed due to Jewish time bomb. [FO 371|3245]

26 AUGUST 1939

On 26 August two British Police Inspectors were killed by a landmine outside their house in Jerusalem. Outrage unquestionably planned by Revisionist Military Organization. One of the victims was employed on Jewish Affairs in C.I.D. Headquarters and had been previously threatened. Active measures being taken against extreme Revisionists. [WO 1691148]

2 MARCH 1940

1030 hours crowds assembled as in Jerusalem but on larger scale. Attitude distinctly more hostile. Police stoned and three injured. Troops called out and curfew imposed 1100 hours. Troops and police enforced curfew but owing to large crowds, curfew not fully effective until 1600 hours when additional troops arrived. Curfew subsequently extended until 0900 hours Tuesday except for purchase of food by women from 0900 – 1100 hours Sunday and Monday.

Large crowd demonstrated 1100 hours Hadar Hacarrnel. Stoned police Station and Law Courts. Dispersed by Police without assistance of troops. One constable injured. Troops called out to picquet town and reinforcements brought in from Jenin in anticipation further trouble. 1830 hours crowds reassembled Hadar Hacarrnel. Attitude definitely more hostile. Attempt made to burn Law Courts. Police baton charge dispersed crowd. Four Police injured. Curfew imposed 1900 hours 2nd March to 0400 hours 3rd March.

Hostile procession in town. Police stoned. Crowds dispersed without serious disorder. [WO 1691148]

4 MARCH 1940

1730 hrs. Jewish student injured baton charge 2 March died 2000 hrs. Bomb exploded outside Eden and Orient Cinemas. No casualties. Manager, Zion cinema warned that same would occur if he opened. Bombs not of dangerous type and motive evidently intimidation. Troops called out. No incidents. Strike called for 0800-1000 hrs 5 March during funeral of student. 1 100 hrs 5 March. Funeral passed quietly.

No serious incidents. About 0200 hrs 4 March 20 masked Jews raided “Haboker” newspaper and smashed type. Reason that paper obeyed Censor and omitted Vaad Leumi manifesto 1 March. Small demonstration 1100 hrs 4 March and minor curfew breaking incidents. Day generally quiet. [WO 169/148]

5 MARCH 1940

Jerusalem 1245 5 March crowds returned from funeral stoned D.C.’s office and broke shop windows. One Arab injured. Dispersed by Police. 1315 hours crowd attempt to burn Eden Cinema and barricade street. Dispersed by troops and police. 1415 hours Police tender stoned 4 police slightly injured.

Procession of women attempted march to D.C.’s office diverted by Police without incident. 141 5 crowd raided Hadar Hacarmel Post Office.

Dispersed by military. Crowd attempted burn Police Station. Police fired four shots crowd dispersed no casualties. Many shop windows, windscreens broken. 1445 hours Jewish detective seriously injured by crowd. 1500 hours barricades erected across main street cleared by Military. One soldier injured by bottle. 1600 hours crowd chased away guards and barricaded Post Office. 1830 hours 2 shots fired at Army officer in car and car stoned. [WO 169/148]

10 March 1940

At 1900 hrs in Tel Aviv a B/Sgt. of Police was struck on the head by an unknown person. The Sgt. was slightly bruised and the culprit made his escape. [WO 169/183]

12 MARCH 1940

At 2300 hrs. a Jewish constable was attacked and stabbed by unknown persons in Tel Aviv and seriously injured. Dogs followed scent but lost it where car apparently waited. [WO 169/183]

13 MARCH 1940

A more serious incident on 13th March was the assault by a party of Jewish youths on a Jewish C.I.D. constable at Tel Aviv who was dangerously injured with iron bars and is unlikely to live. The victim was largely responsible for the arrest of a number of Labour leaders in or near Tel Aviv who have been detained for their part in fomenting disturbances during the past fortnight. There can be little doubt that the assailants were members of one or another of the militant Left groups acting in revenge, and the incident is thus a direct challenge to the Forces of law and order. [WO 169/148]

15 MARCH 1940

At 1145 hrs. a shop window in Tel Aviv was broken by a crowd of people because the owner was selling Arab shoes. [WO 169/183]

15 MARCH 1940

At 2000 hrs. an Arab was robbed of LP (Palestinian Pounds) 7 by 2 armed men in Yazur village. Both men were recognized. Police investigating.

Following the purchase of soap from an Arab vender, a shopkeeper in Tel Aviv had his shop window broken by an unknown person. [WO 169/183]

18 MARCH 1940

Incendiary bombs of the battery and thermus flask type placed in a Police tender and against the door of the Police Transpost H.Q. in Tel Aviv. Bombs failed to explode. [WO 169/148]

29 MARCH 1940

A group of Betar Youth damaged the stock in a store in Rosh Pina. The owner had purchased oranges from an Arab. Two offenders arrested. [WO 169/148]

30 MARCH 1940

A fire broke out in a German Printing Press in Tel Aviv. LP 300 damage. Revisionists suspected. [WO l69/148]

2 APRIL 1940

During a disturbance between Arabs and Jews near Sharona (Tiberia) when Jews tried to evict Arabs from a plot of land, four Arab women were slightly injured. One Jew was arrested.

Four Jews were arrested in Haifa for assaulting the driver and conductor of an Arab bus following a dispute over fares. [WO 169/148]

3 APRIL 1940

During the night two private cars, one the property of an R.A.F. Officer, were damaged by gelignite and a bomb exploded harmlessly near the Mustashfa Police Barracks. [WO 169/148]

6 APRIL 1940

An anti-Kofer Hayishuv movement is starting activities again. Payments have been demanded from firms who have paid the Kofer Hayishuv tax. The natural reluctance to pay a second imposition is met by threats and sabotage. [WO l69/183]

7 APRIL 1940

1900 hours. Three unknown persons fired at DI Constable Weiderseld of the Haifa C.I.D. He was not injured and the assailants escaped. [WO 169/148]

8 APRIL 1940

A fire broke out in Hambergers German printing press in Chancellor Avenue, Jerusalem. Arson is suspected. [WO 169/148]

25 APRIL 1940

A number of Jewish labourers broke up a house in Tel Aviv. The owner was employing Arab labour in his orange grove. [WO 169/148]

3 MAY 1940

Moussa Sabatini, a Sephardic Jew, was shot and fatally wounded by unknown persons in Haifa. The murder was the work of the Left Hagana by whom Sabatini had been threatened as a “traitor”. [WO 169/148]

26 JUNE 1940

Detective Constable Weinfeld was shot dead in Haifa by Jewish terrorists. [WO 169/148]

27 JUNE 1940

Dr. Alfos of Tel Aviv received a letter threatening him and his wife with death if he did not contribute LP 100 to the Jewish National Fund. [WO 169/148]

18 JULY 1940

At 17 10 hours, 18th July, a bedouin was assaulted by eight Jews near Tel Adashim (Nazareth) and seriously injured. Seven Jews were detained. [WO 1691148]

22 JULY 1940

80 persons forcibly “occupied the Cafe Noga in Tel Aviv as a protest against the non-collection and non-payment of the tax by the proprietor. [WO 1691148]

1 AUGUST 1940

35 youths “occupied” the Diza Cafe in Tel Aviv as a protest against the non-collection of the tax. Police dispersed the intruders and five arrests were made. [WO 1691148]

15 AUGUST 1940

Revisionists set fire to two Egged buses, one in Tel Aviv and one in Herzeliya. [WO 1691148]

21 AUGUST 1940

Three masked Jews, one armed, raided the Japhet Bank in Rehavia. Two, including the armed man, were arrested by passers-by but the third got away with LP. 709. The perpetrators were Revisionists. [WO 1691148]

6 SEPTEMBER 1940

An Arab grazing his cattle on Jewish land near Haim Ed Walid (Huleh) was assaulted by a Jew and injured. [WO 1691148]

16 SEPTEMBER 1940

Irgun Z’vai Leumi (Revisionist Military Organization) activity.

Bank Robbery. At 11:45 hrs. on 16th September, six armed masked Revisionists entered the Northern Branch of the Anglo-Palestine Bank in Tel Aviv and after intimidating the public by firing a number of shots they escaped with LP 5,000 in bank notes. They were pursued, and although the money has not been recovered a number of suspects have been arrested in incriminating circumstances. Two of them were found in possession of gold coins and bullion valued at over L (British Pounds) 750. The raid was carried out by the extremist faction of the Irgun Z’vai Leumi headed by Abraham Stern, and is described as an “expropriation for political ends”. It is reported that the C.I.D. officer investigating the case has received a letter from the Irgun Z’vai Leumi warning him to refrain from further inquiries as the money was taken for a national cause. [WO 1691148]

6 OCTOBER 1940

Four Jews, one of whom was armed and wearing a police uniform, entered two houses in Tel Aviv and produced search warrants. In the first case a woman who suspected them shouted out and they made off, and in the second case LP 540 was stolen. [WO 169/148]

31 OCTOBER 1940

An Arab received head injuries during a dispute over grazing rights. Two Jews arrested. [WO 169/148]

10 DECEMBER 1940

At approximately 11:30 a.m. the Jewish strike which commenced at Haifa on 9.12.40 took effect throughout the country. In Haifa, two British Police were stoned when they attempted to prevent a crowd of people overturning a car, but were uninjured. Several cars, including a police armoured car, were stoned, and a girl cut by flying glass. An Arab taxi driver who was responsible for the arrest of a Jewish intimidator earlier in the day was set upon by a large crowd and received a broken arm and slight head injuries. In Tel Aviv a taxi was stoned. In Jerusalem a few windows were broken. Several persons were arrested in Tel Aviv and Haifa for distributing pamphlets and writing slogans directed against the Government on the walls of buildings. No incidents were reported from other parts of the country. [WO 1691/148]

19 DECEMBER 1940

A number of Arabs who commenced to plough land at Ashrafiyat near Beisan were attacked by a party of Jews with sticks and stones. Police proceeded to the scene and arrested 83 Jews who attempted to resist them. A number of Arabs were injured. [WO 1691/148]

14 JANUARY 1942

At 0830 hours an employee of the Hamashbir Supply Co., of Tel Aviv, a subsidiary of the Histadruth, left the Workers Bank (also Histadruth) carrying LP 1093 in a satchel. He was attacked by two men who made off with the money. They were subsequently joined by a third man. After an interchange of shots, between one of them and British and Jewish Constables, during which two Jewish onlookers were killed, two men, both armed, were arrested. The man with the money is still at large. The assailants’ rooms were searched and two seven-chambered loaded revolvers and three homemade bombs were seized. Indications so far point to the outrage being committed by members of the Stern Group. There have been rumours that they were going to commit a series of robberies. They had pamphlets identical with those picked up later in the day announcing the illegal Stern broadcast and the seized revolvers were the same calibre and make as those used in a previous murder, and also in the Anglo-Palestine Bank Robbery in Tel Aviv in Feb. 1940. [WO 16914334]

20 JANUARY 1942

At 0930 hrs. on 20/1/42 a small explosion occurred in a room on the first floor of Yael Street in Tel Aviv. The police were summoned and proceeded to the house. When they got into the room, a far more powerful explosion took place. D.S.P. Schiff was killed outright, British Inspector Turton and 1st Inspector Goldman have since died of injuries. A wire was found leading from the room where the explosion took place, over the roof to an adjacent flat. A third mine which is said to have consisted of some twenty sticks of gelignite was found unexploded later under the path leading to the house. This cold blooded act of terrorism, very similar to the way in which Inspectors Barker and Cairns met their death, is thought to be almost certainly another perpetration of Stern’s Group. [WO 169/4334]

28 APRIL 1942

On 22/4 rpt 22/4 attempted assassination Inspector General of Police by means of large bomb connected by 135 metres of wire. Discovered and rendered harmless. Smaller bomb placed under car of another senior Police Official fell off exploded when discovered by Arab servant killing instantly. Thought to be attempted revenge by remaining Stern Group elements. Air Raid alarm Tel Aviv 23/4. Otherwise normal. [WO 169/4334]

1 MAY 1942

On the first of May another, happily unsuccessful, attempt at assassination was made by the Stern Group. This time the intended victim was the A.S.P. C.I.D. Jaffa. The car in which he was travelling was damaged but the occupants were unhurt other than suffering from shock. The police have made some 17 arrests in Haifa, Tel Aviv, Jerusalem and on 5 May 1942 Isaac Tzelnik alias Shimon surrendered to the Haifa Police. [WO 16914334]

13 JUNE 1942

At 0018 hrs. on 13 June 1942, a bomb exploded in Blumenthal’s printing press, injuring five persons in an adjoining building and starting a fire which spread and caused considerable damage to an adjoining house. The paper does not advocate “orthodox” Zionism but many Zionists will say that the main dislike is the circulation of any paper in the German language. [WO 16914334]

3 FEBRUARY 1944

Tendency of more extreme Jewish elements becoming bolder in anti-White Paper and pro-nationalist effusions. Irgun Zvai Leumi procession fired 2 shots on dispersal by police Jerusalem 5 Feb. No casualties. 0300 hours 3 Feb. taxi driver and 2 passengers observe 2 men tampering with Cathedral Wall Jerusalem. In company with police patrol contact made with suspects in adjacent Jewish Quarter. Suspects open fire fatally wounding Arab taxi driver. Subsequently sack and various tools discovered also approximately 100 metres wiring terminating in outer archway entrance to cathedral. [FO 371/40125]

12 FEBRUARY 1944

Bombs exploded in and around Migration Offices Jerusalem-Haifa-Tel Aviv night Saturday Feb. 12. One casualty not serious. Haifa building demolished. Considerable damage Tel Aviv building. Damage mostly outside building in Jerusalem. Considered work of Irgun Zvai Leumi as a means of focusing attention White Paper. More anti-British anti-White Paper pamphlets and posters. [FO 371/40125]

14 FEBRUARY 1944

Two British police shot and killed by two Jews whom they were searching Haifa 14 Feb. Hebrew press and majority Jews deprecate recent Jewish outrages. [FO 371/40125]

14/15 FEBRUARY 1944

On the night of the 14/15th February in Haifa, British Inspector R.D. Green and British Constable H.E. Ewer, challenged two suspicious characters carrying a parcel, who turned out to be Jews. So far as can be ascertained, while Green was examining the parcel, one of the Jews shot him and the Constable with a pistol. Both were wounded and fell to the ground and the Jews ran away. One of them turned back, however, and fired at Green again as he lay on the ground. Jews then made good their escape. Parcel was found to contain Stern Group pamphlets. Both police officers are dangerously wounded and separate casualty telegram is being sent. [FO 371/40125]

24 FEBRUARY 1944

Two cars containing police personnel blown up by bombs in Haifa on 24/2/44 one police officer injured. Not seriously. Bombs exploded income tax offices Jerusalem Haifa Tel Aviv no casualties. Anti-British White Paper pamphlets and posters continue. [FO 371/40125]

24 FEBRUARY 1944

Two further bomb explosions which are thought to be attributable to Stern Gang occurred in Haifa between 8 and 9 o’clock on 24th February. One bomb which had been buried in the runway outside the garage of F.C. Hersburgh, Deputy Superintendent of Police, exploded under the car as he drove out. Car was wrecked but person named escaped with superficial injuries.

Second bomb had been planted by the side of the road and was connected by wire to press button some 60 metres distant. It was exploded as police traffic car containing British Inspectors W.Y.K. Miller and W.E. Frost and British Sergeant D.D. Fairfoul was passing, car was damaged, but occupants suffered only shock.

Third unexploded bomb was found subsequently concealed at the side of another road, consisting of metal container holding 33 sticks of gelignite, 5 hand grenades and some rounds of ammunition, nuts, bolts. Three electric detonators and primers were attached to it and it was connected by some 20 metres of wire to electric plug. [FO 371/40125]

26 FEBRUARY 1944

Following incidents, which occurred on the evening of the 26th February, are evidently further developments in anti-Government campaign of Irgun Zvai Leumi.

Tel Aviv. At 8.30 p.m., three explosions took place in the building housing the Income Tax Office, followed by another at 9.25. Notice in English and Hebrew, signed Irgun, was found on the door of the office reading “Danger, house is mined”. No damage to records, but extensive damage to the structure of the building.

Haifa. At 10.15 p.m., bomb exploded near the Income Tax Office causing slight damage. It had been placed some five yards from the outside wall. Several sticks of gelignite which had apparently formed part of the bomb had failed to explode. Jerusalem. During the evening, unknown person threw note through the fanlight of the door to the room in which watchman in the Income Tax Office was sitting. Note, which was in Arabic and Hebrew, stated that bomb had been placed in the building. Area was cordoned off and the building searched early this morning, 27th February. One bomb found and removed to waste ground where it exploded. No damage, apart from broken windows. [FO 371/40125]

13 MARCH 1944

Shortly after 8 p.m. on 13th March, a Jewish C.I.D. Constable named Zev Flesch was fired at outside a cafe in Petah Tivah, and hit by five shots in the chest, stomach and leg. He died shortly afterwards. Person named was in plain clothes at the time, and was accompanied by an acquaintance and another man who had joined them a few seconds previously. His companions stated that he was shot by two persons whom they could not identify. Four empty parabellum cartridges, and one expended bullet, were found at the scene. Police suspect that this was the work of the Stern Group. [FO 371/40125]

16 MARCH 1944

At about 3 p.m. on 16th March, C.I.D. received information that persons were expected to visit house in Tel Aviv to remove the property of member of the Stern Group who had been arrested there by the Police on 10th March. Armed party of Police went to the house and entered the back garden. Some Police were posted to cover the rear of the house, and two British Sergeants and two British Constables passed through the garden to the front. One of the Sergeants saw a man talking to woman at the gate. From distance of about 20 yards he called upon the man to put up his hands. The man ducked behind the wall and ran away. The sergeant followed, and the man fired at him. Simultaneously second man appeared from among the trees in boulevard fronting the house, fired at the Sergeant and then made off. The Sergeant fired two bursts from the front at the first man, and, as he did so, was fired at by third man who appeared on the pavement. All three men made good their escape. No police casualties, but woman passing by was wounded in the leg, not seriously, by stray bullet.

At 7.30 p.m. on 16th March, Police challenged a Jew in a Tel Aviv Street. He drew a pistol and made off. Police fired six shots, whereupon the man threw away his pistol and a package which he was carrying. He was captured, and the package was found to contain three sticks of gelignite, a fuse detonator, and a number of rivets. Pistol was loaded with seven rounds. He was also in possession of magazine of parabellum pistol containing six rounds. He has been identified as David Main, a leading member of the Stern Group, who has been wanted by the Police for over three years. [FO 371/40125]

23 MARCH 1944

Tel Aviv. At 6.30 p.m., C. Brown, British Chief Clerk at the District Police Headquarters, was shot as he was leaving his house. He was wounded and died later. Jewish bystander in the hall of the house at the time was wounded, not seriously. At 6.40 p.m., British Constable Langtrey was shot and very seriously wounded in the street. His condition is critical. At 7.30 p.m., British Constable Caley was shot outside the Magistrate’s Court and died later.

Jaffa. At 11.40 p.m. four rucksacks containing gelignite were discovered in an air raid shelter below Police Headquarters. Building was evacuated and shortly afterwards number of explosions occurred completely demolishing one end of the building. Police patrol saw three suspicious looking characters who opened fire on being challenged. Police returned fire and it is believed that two suspects were wounded. One Temporary Assistant Constable was wounded in the foot.

Jerusalem. At 10.30 p.m. number of men wearing articles of Police uniform entered Police Headquarters by means of a ladder. They were disturbed by J. Scott, Assistant Superintendent of Police, who opened fire. Intruders returned fire, killing him. Number of bombs which the party had brought with them and deposited, exploded subsequently, causing very serious damage. One man was arrested in possession of bombs and some ammunition and a discarded pistol was found nearby.

Haifa. At 11.30 p.m. a number of bombs exploded at the rear of C.I.D. Office and billets, damaging entire wing of the building. Three British Constables, Allison, Mackie and Harding were dead when extricated from the wreckage. A fourth. Ball, was admitted to hospital with serious head injuries and two others suffering from abrasions and shock. Four Arab members of the kitchen staff at billets also received injury. Separate casualty telegram has been sent. [FO 371/40125]

5 APRIL 1944

On the afternoon of 5th April a mobile police patrol in Tel Aviv approached a man in order to question him. The man opened fire with a revolver and wounded Constable Dumbleton in the face. The patrol returned the fire, wounding the assailant in the legs. He was arrested and found to be in possession of a revolver (from which three rounds had been fired at the patrol), a loaded automatic, a hand grenade and a match-box bomb. The assailant, who is believed to be member of the Stern Group is now under guard in hospital, and his wounds are not serious. He will be charged with carrying arms under the Emergency Regulations. [FO 371/40125]

9 APRIL 1944

At about 9 p.m. on the evening of 9th April, three unknown persons, passing British Police billet in Northern Tel Aviv, fired shots at two British Constables onduty outside the billet. Simultaneously, an explosion occurred near the billet and fragment resembling piece of hand grenade was found. Assailants escaped. Constables Hawkins and Quinn were slightly wounded, as reported in my casualty telegram No. 449. A Palestinian Jewish Constable approaching at the time was grazed by a bullet. [FO 371/40125]

10 APRIL 1944

At approximately 9 a.m. on 10th April, determined, but unsuccessful, attempt was made on the life of Deputy Superintendent J.P. Forde when driving in Tel Aviv in his car on the way to Divisional Police Headquarters. He was first shot at by aman with heavy automatic pistol and, when Forde fired back, a second and possibly a third gunman joined in. Forde escaped injury, but seven bullets struck the car, including the windscreen. Assailants made off before assistance arrived. [FO 371/40125]

10 MAY 1944

At approximately 8 a.m. on 10th May Jewish Police Constable Haim Gutevitch, of District C.I.D., was shot dead by unknown assailant when leaving his home in Tel Aviv. Two shots were fired and bomb thrown. In the subsequent confusion, the assailant escaped. [FO 371/40125]

14 JULY 1944

At about 12.45 a.m. on 14th July an attack was made by terrorists on a building in the centre of Jerusalem which houses the Jerusalem district police headquarters, and the district of Bethlehem and Jerusalem District Land Registry. The attack began with a number of minor explosions, accompanied by shooting and throwing of hand grenades. As it developed, three large explosions took place in succession doing extensive damage to buildings and starting a conflagration. The ground floor was completely gutted and some damage (extent as yet unascertained) was (group omitted) to the upper floors. The last explosion occurred at 2.05 a.m., and the fire was brought under control at 2.30 a.m.

Number of attackers is not yet known. They used one or more taxis which had been seized from their drivers at pistol point, and besides employing gelignite bombs and hand grenades appear to have been equipped with tommy guns and automatic pistols. In the light of previous outrages the methods and objective in this latest attack clearly point to the Stern Group and/or Irgun as the culprits.

An Arab supernumerary constable and an Arab watchman lost their lives in the attack. A Jewish supernumerary constable is in a dangerous condition suffering from a bullet wound in the chest. Two British constables have been detained in hospital suffering from shock and superficial wounds. Six British police received superficial injuries.

Jerusalem District Land Registry records were very extensively damaged by fire and by water from Fire Brigade operations. Full implication of the loss of these valuable records cannot be determined for some time. It is not yet known what can be salvaged, but preliminary survey indicates that loss is likely to be serious, as it involves the majority principal registers as well as files. It will be necessary to close the Jerusalem District Land Registry sine die. [FO371/40126]

8 AUGUST 1944

In the afternoon of the 8th August, the High Commissioner and Lady MacMichael were motoring to a farewell function when the car, under police escort, was ambushed at 4 kilometres from Jerusalem, on the Jerusalem-Jaffa road, and fire was opened with tommy-guns from the side of the road. His Excellency was very slightly wounded in the hand and thigh, Lady MacMichael was unhurt, the A.D.C., Major Nicholls, was shot through the lung and seriously hurt and the police driver was also seriously wounded in the neck. So far as is known at present, the assailants escaped. The police are taking all appropriate measures. [WO 37/40126]

22 AUGUST 1944

Jaffa Divisional Police Headquarters, which is close to the Tel Aviv boundary, and two Police Stations on the Jaffa-Tel Aviv border, were attacked by armed Jews on 22nd August at approximately 2300 hours.

Attackers in three separate parties, each numbering about a dozen men, were armed with home-made bombs, grenades and sub machine guns, and one party arrived and left in a truck. Way was prepared for the attack by diversionary mining of the roads and rail crossings in the neighbourhood and the laying of booby traps. In addition, a large ambush party lay near the Divisional Headquarters. Where road junctions were mined, posters had been left bearing warnings by Irgun Zvai Leumi.

Attackers were driven off by small arms fire, except at one Police Station, where the Palestinian personnel on guard were outnumbered. Fourteen rifles were taken from this Station. Minor damage was done to buildings by bombs. Casualties were one British Constable wounded in the leg, one Arab Constable and one Jewish temporary additional Constable seriously injured. The latter’s rifle was taken. Six suspects have been arrested, one of whom was wounded by police fire and was seen to throw away a bomb. [FO 371/40127]

27 SEPTEMBER 1944

On the night of 27th September attacks were made on four Police Stations by members of the Irgun Zvai Leumi, the military organization of the New Zionist Organisation. They were planned and executed by a force estimated to have been at least 150 strong and armed with bombs and automatic weapons. There were casualties among Palestinian police and civilians and considerable damage was caused to police buildings. Casualties were also inflicted on the terrorists and two men were arrested, one of whom had been wounded. Quantities of ammunition, two bombs and Irgun flags were seized. [FO 371/40127]

29 SEPTEMBER 1944

On the 29th September, Asst. Superintendent Wilkin of the Palestine C.I.D. was shot dead in a public street in Jerusalem by two Jews, who escaped. He was known to be an expert on Jewish Affairs. The murder was subsequently claimed by the “Fighters for the Freedom of Israel” in a clandestine pamphlet issued by that organization. [FO 141/1001]

6 OCTOBER 1944

At 2.15 p.m. on 6th October the Tel Aviv offices and stores of the Department of Light Industries were raided by about 50 persons, some of whom were armed. They removed 8 truckloads of textiles. Raiders announced themselves as being, and are believed to have been, members of the Irgun Zvai Leumi. Object of the raid was presumably to raise funds; according to preliminary report value of textiles stolen was 100,000 Pounds. [FO 371/40127]

31 OCTOBER / 1 NOVEMBER 1944

The Secretary of State for the Colonies (Mr. George Hall): On the night of 31st October/lst November, a series of concerted attacks was made by armed Jews on the Palestine railway system, culminating in a full-scale attack on the railway station and goods yards at Lydda. Owing to the widespread nature of the attacks, information is still necessarily incomplete, but reports so far received show that the permanent way has been blown up and cut in over 20 places, on the main Gaza-Acre line and especially on the lines between Lydda and Jerusalem and between Haifa and Samakh. In other places there have been reports of explosions and unexploded mines have been found on the line. The attack on the station and goods yard at Lydda resulted in extensive damage to a signal box, a train and three locomotives. The locomotive shed was set on fire and large numbers of unexploded mines and bombs were found in the vicinity.

During the attack, the following casualties occurred: Killed – 1 British soldier; 1 Palestinian policeman and 2 Palestinian members of the railway staff. Believed killed – 1 Palestinian policeman. Wounded – 1 British soldier, 1 Palestinian policeman, 6 Palestinian members of the railway staff.

Subsequently the dead body of one Jewish attacker was found near Lydda. During the night, two police launches at anchor in Haifa harbour were damaged, apparently by limpet bombs. A third police launch was blown up and sunk at Jaffa. Unsuccessful attempt was made on the installation of Consolidated Refineries Limited at Haifa. An explosion occurred and the dead body of a man, believed to be a Jew, was found buried beneath rubble but the installation itself was undamaged. [FO 371/54381]

6 NOVEMBER 1944

On the 6th November, in Cairo, Lord Moyne and his British military driver were assassinated by two men who subsequently confessed that they were members of the “Fighters for the Freedom of Israel” and had carried out the murder on the instructions of that organization, for the reason that Lord Moyne was the highest political representative of the British Government in the Middle East and was pursuing a policy hostile to the interests of the Jewish nation. The men entered Egypt in British military uniform and it is possible that they may be deserters from the Palestine Regiment. One of the weapons with which Lord Moyne was killed has been identified as the same which had been used to kill Mr. Wilkin in Jerusalem a month previously. [FO 141/1001]

10 OCTOBER 1945

A large number of armed Jews attacked Athlit clearance camp for immigrants between 0100 hours and 0130 hours today. Men were armed with rifles, pistols and daggers. Some were in police uniform. Four appointed temporary additional constables on guard were seized, beaten with rifle butts, bound and gagged. One Arab was seriously hurt. One Jewish T.A.C. was tied up but not injured.

Attackers cut wide avenue in the wire on the north side of the camp and cut the telephone wires. 208 illegal immigrants were released, apparently with inside knowledge. Eleven immigrants, who presumably refused to accompany the escapees, were bound and gagged. Of these one Christian woman died of suffocation. Party then escaped in the direction of Mount Carmel.

Police took immediate action to seal the Carmel Range. One police party, proceeding to establish road check, was fired upon from ambush by Jews armed with rifles, submachine guns and grenades. Police truck was overturned. One British Constable shot dead. (Separate casualty telegram sent). One Arab Constable seriously wounded, and Jewish Corporal slightly wounded. Scene of ambush was presumably one embarking point for the Athlit party, as the police seized nine lorries, with drivers, near the spot shortly after the incident. [FO 371/54381]

11 OCTOBER 1945

A large gang of armed Jews raided a Military Training Depot at Rehovot Station between 0100 and 0130 hours on 11th October. The Jewish guard made no effective resistance and the key to the armoury was obtained. Following were stolen: 9 Bren guns, 6 machine guns, 218 rifles, 2 pistols, 220 bayonets, 24 training grenades, 39 other grenades, and various miscellaneous articles.

Gang drove away in three trucks stolen from the Depot, two belonging to the Army and one to the R.A.F. The training depot is used for Palestinian troops, primarily for recruits to the Jewish Brigade. [FO 371/45381]

14 NOVEMBER 1945

During the afternoon a number of isolated incidents occurred on the outskirts of Tel Aviv in which Arab buses were stoned and some slight injuries inflicted on passengers. A number of military vehicles were also stoned in the streets of Tel Aviv.

Streets South and East of Colony Square became packed with hostile crowds and the police and military were heavily stoned. At 1900 hrs a warning banner was raised in Aliyah Street. At 1925 hrs the crowd advanced and three casualties from stoning were suffered by troops. Two rounds were ordered and fired at the crowd and it is reported that a ringleader was wounded. Two more rounds were fired at the crowd at 1930 hrs and the crowd withdrew. The crowds there were estimated at 2,000-3,000 in number.

At 1935 hrs the Head Post Office in Allenby Road was attacked from the north, ground floor doors and windows were smashed and a telephone kiosk destroyed. An attempt to set fire to the building with petrol was unsuccessful. Under heavy stoning police parties made baton charges on six occasions; the crowd, however, advanced and the baton party was obliged to retire. Warning to the crowd was given by the military commander at 1940 hrs and at 1945 hrs a warning banner was raised. The crowd, however, continued to advance and ten rounds were fired, whereupon the crowd withdrew.

At about this time large crowds had gathered in Nahlat Benyamin Street. At 1916 hrs they were reported to be stoning the offices of the Income Tax Department and later to be attempting to set fire to the building. At 1930 hrs the offices of the Department of Light Industries in the same street were also reported to have been fired. A reconnaissance patrol reported both buildings to be alight but pending the arrival of further military assistance it was not possible to take effective action. Reinforcements arrived at 2040 hrs and the situation brought under control by 2130 hrs. [WO 275/38]

15 NOVEMBER 1945

At 750 a.m. an assembly of Jews in Natirva Quarter (outside the curfew area) placed a car across the road, the Salame road railway crossing. A platoon of troops was present and the crowd was ordered to disperse. The situation became more menacing and one round was fired inflicting one casualty. Eight other persons suffered injuries in the incident.

At approximately the same time an unruly mob pulled down and broke the railway crossing barrier in Herzl Street. A part of the line was tom up and as a result a passenger train containing Arabs was held at Tel Aviv Railway Station. The line was quickly repaired and service resumed. At 755 a.m. it was reported that approximately 500 people were outside the offices of the Light Industries Department in Machlat Benyamin Street; that some had entered the building and were attempting to break open the safe; and that furniture was being burned in the street.

At 9 a.m. acrowd of approximately 500 persons assembled in Hagen David Adom Square stoning and attempting to overturn military vehicles. 4-ton military lorry loaded with flour was wrecked and set on fire. The driver, a Jewish soldier, was seriously injured.

Shortly before 10 a.m. a blazing barrier was placed across the Jaffa-Tel Aviv Road at the Herzl Street junction, and troops in the vicinity were heavily stoned by a crowd of hooligans. The crowd was dispersed with a short burst of automatic fire. A few minutes later the crowd reassembled and passing police vehicles were heavily stoned. Further rounds were fired to disperse the gathering.

A branch of Barclay’s Bank in Allenby Road, near the Mograbi Cinema and the sub-Post Office in Bialik Street, were attacked simultaneously at 10:30 a.m. Parties were dispatched to these places and both premises were cleared. Later, however, after the departure of the troops, the sub-Post Office was again attacked and an attempt was made to open the safe. Interior fittings were stripped and burned in the streets. A combined police and military patrol which arrived on the scene was stoned and one home made “getaway” type bomb was thrown. Two baton charges were made by the police and the crowd was then warned to disperse. The warning had no effect and troops fired four rounds; the crowd then dispersed. On the Bank premises internal fittings were tom down and burned in the streets. A steel cupboard was left lying on the pavement intact and a large safe inside the premises was found also to be intact. Troops cleared and held the vicinity.

At 12 noon two home-made “getaway” type bombs were thrown at troops in Hagen David Adom Square, one of which failed to explode. There were no casualties among the troops in this incident but one of the attackers is believed to have been injured.

Between 9 a.m. and 2 p.m. whilst the incidents described above were taking place, shops belonging to Messrs. Spinney’s Ltd. in Nachlat Benyamin Street and Second of November Square were looted and the premises badly damaged. Police parties made a number of baton charges to disperse the rioters but the principal offenders as regards looting were small children. [WO 275/38]

15 NOVEMBER 1945

Curfew imposed municipal area Tel Aviv last night broken early today by large number rioters carrying out series lawless acts. At 0826, mob blocked road with car at railway crossing Hatiqva Quarter. Crowd refused disperse on orders and military forced to shoot ringleader and around property. Section railway line uprooted Herzl Street, Post Office, Bialik Street, broken into and fittings burnt in street, shops including Spinneys British-owned stores entered and looted, Barclays Bank stripped of fittings but attempted safe opening failed. Troops compelled to open fire several places after police failed disperse crowds with baton charges. Twice mob threw home-made grenades at soldiers. Casualties today – 1 Jew dead, 1 very seriously injured, 13 seriously injured, 3 slightly injured; forces law and order suffered no casualties. 50 arrests curfew breakers; 5 adults, 8 juveniles arrested for rioting. General Officer Commanding Palestine and Acting Chief Secretary morning conferred with General Officer Commanding, Sixth Airborne Division, and local authorities on steps required restore law and order. Clearly evident interests security locally and countryside curfew essential. Military dispositions made for enforcement. Rokach, Mayor of Tel Aviv, summoned and impressed supreme need ensuring law abiders complied curfew restrictions and cooperated maintenance law and order. Mayor agreed pledged municipality take all steps later issuing message Tel Avivians condemning irresponsible elements urging control. Measures generally effective, but situation tense and some firing tonight. Curfew lifted only tomorrow 7 morning to 4 afternoon. [FO 371/45386]

23 NOVEMBER 1945

At 131 5 hrs 23 Nov. 2 civilian lorries entered 120 HU under pretext collecting stores. Temporary passes and demand notes appeared genuine. Party was in charge of man wearing RAF Cpls uniform who spoke good English. Occupants 120 HU held up at PT revolver and bound. Following items known to have been stolen. 4 Vickers 1 Lewis guns. Unspecified number sten gun magazines. Purposes of raid was clearly Arnn as stocks of revolver and rifles were untouched. [FO 371/45386]

25 NOVEMBER 1945

Coast Guard stations at Givat Olga and Sidna Ali were attacked early hrs 25 Nov. by Armed bands of Jews. Givat Olga attack started 01 15 hrs lasted 20 minutes. Automatic weapons used and charges placed under tower of building which was destroyed. Cas. Pal Police 1 Brit Sgt 3 constabs slightly wounded. Sidne Ali attack started 0145 hrs. Light automatic weapons were used and charges placed against building which was extensively damaged. Cas Pal police seriously wounded 1 Brit Sgt and 1 Pal constable. Slightly wounded 4 Brit Constables 1 Pal Constable. [FO 371/45386]

27 DECEMBER 1945

On the 27th December at about 7.15 p.m. Police Headquarters in Jerusalem were attacked by Jewish terrorists armed with automatic weapons and explosives. The attack commenced with heavy fire directed at Police Headquarters; at the same time entry was forced into a large building opposite and some members of the gang gained access to a balcony from which heavy fire was directed at the Police buildings across the road. Under cover of this fire other Jews laid explosives at one corner of the Police offices. The subsequent explosion caused heavy damage to the buildings, one British Assistant Superintendent of Police was killed and buried under the debris together with four Basuto guards. A British Superintendent of Police who was working in the Stores section at the time and four Palestinian Constables on guard were injured.

A British Constable who was on duty at the main door of Police Headquarters, ran out into the road and engaged the attackers with great gallantry. He was killed in action at this point. At about the same time another British Constable was shot dead whilst in action against the Jews nearby. A further body of Jews was encountered by a British Deputy Superintendent of Police while they were engaged in withdrawing from the scene. This officer engaged them and it is believed that he inflicted a number of casualties before being shot down by automatic fire. The body of a dead Jew who had been killed by bullet wounds was subsequently found and another Jew was admitted to hospital with a bullet wound. This man’s house was searched and military equipment was found. Damage to Police Headquarters in Jerusalem was largely restricted to the Stores Section. The C.I.D. Offices and Criminal records escaped with little damage.

At about the same time explosions occurred at District Police Headquarters in Jaffa. As in Jerusalem charges were laid against the building under heavy covering fire. The Police guard returned the attackers’ fire. Considerable damage was caused to the Police buildings and an Arab telephone operator was killed at his post. A detachment of Police Mobile Force proceeding to the scene of the outrage was heavily attacked by armed Jews at some distance from the Jaffa Police Headquarters. After an exchange of fire the attackers fled towards Tel Aviv. [CO 733/456]

NOTES TO CHAPTER FOUR

  1. British Command Paper No. 6019.
  2. Document WO 208/1705, Public Record Office, London.
  3. Ibid.
  4. Ibid.
  5. Cable to the British Cabinet, Document WO 208/1705, Public Record Office, London.
  6. “Security Conditions in Palestine,” A Top Secret Memorandum by the Secretary of State for the Colonies to the Prime Minister, dated 10 September 1945, Annex, p. 6 PREM/8/627, Public Record Office, London.
  7. Document WO 208/1705, Public Record Office, London.
  8. Yaacov Eliav, Wanted (New York: Shengold Publishers, Inc., 1984), p. 219.
  9. Menahem Begin, The Revolt (London: W. H. Allen, 1983), p. 187.
  10. Ibid., p. 196.
  11. British Command Paper No. 6873.
  12. Menahem Begin, The Revolt, p. 212.
  13. Ibid., p. 216.
  14. Ibid., pp. 215-21 6.
  15. Ibid., pp. 163.
  16. Ibid., p. 164.
  17. Ibid., p. 1 of the Introduction.
  18. Kurzman, Dan, Genesis 1948 (London: Valentine Mitchell and Company, 1972), p. 555.
  19. The New York Times, September 12, 1988.
  20. Kurzman, Dan, Genesis 1948: The First Arab-Israeli War (New York and Cleveland: The World Publishing Company, 1970), pp. 555-556.
  21. War Office Documents, WO 261/562, Public Record Office, London.
  22. War Office Documents, WO 275/40, Public Record Office, London.
  23. Hansard, House of Commons Debates, July 15, 1947, p. 636.
  24. Nicholas Bethel, The Palestine Triangle (London: Andre Deutsch, 1979), p. 338.
  25. Foreign Office Documents, FO 371/61761. Public Record Office, London.
  26. War Office Documents, WO 275/42, Public Record Office, London.
  27. Menahem Begin, pp. 35-36.
  28. The Times, London, September 4, 1947, p. 6.
  29. The Times, London, September 24, 1972.
  30. The Times, London, June 5, 1947, p. 4.
  31. The Times, London, June 6, 1947.
  32. New York Times, October 18, 1985.
  33. Ibid., June 29, 1985.
  34. Christian Science Monitor, November 29, 1988, p. 13.
  35. Kenneth R. Thomas, The Anti-Terrorism Act of 1987: Constitutional and statutory issues which may be raised in relation to its interpretation and enforcement. American Law Division. Congressional Research Service Report for Congress 88-382-A, May 18, 1988, p. 4.
  36. Ibid., referring to 133 Congressional Record H8790-91 (daily edition October 20, 1987).
  37. Ibid., referring to Public Law 100-204, Title X, 101 Stat. 1331, pp. 1406-07 (1987).
  38. United States of America v. the Palestine Liberation Organization, 88 Civ. 1962 (S.DN.Y., June 29, 1988).
  39. Hansard, House of Commons Debates, November 17, 1944, p. 2242.
  40. Ibid., February 25, 1944, pp. 1117-1118.
  41. Ibid., April 5, 1944, p. 2017.
  42. Ibid., September 26, 1944, pp. 74-75.
  43. Ibid., October 11, 1944, pp. 74-75.
  44. Ibid., November 9, 1944, pp. 1538-1539.
  45. Ibid., November 17, 1944, pp. 557-561.
  46. Ibid., December 6, 1944, pp. 557-561.
  47. Ibid., November 16, 1945, pp. 2521-2522.
  48. “Proposal of the National Military Organization – Irgun Z’vai Leumi – Concerning the Solution of the Jewish Question in Europe and the Participation of the N.M.O. in the War on the side of Germany.” Original text found in David Yisraeli, The Palestine Problem in German Politics, 1889-1945 (Ramat Gan: Bar Ilan University, 1974). pp. 315-317, as cited by Ralph Schoenman, The Hidden History of Zionism (Santa Barbara, Calif: Veritas Press, 1988), pp. 54-55.

Biographical Sketch of ISSA NAKHLEH

ISSA NAKHLEH was a Palestinian Christian, born in the Shepherd’s Field in Palestine. He was a graduate of the London University (LL.B.) and a Barrister at Law of the Society of Lincoln’s Inn, London. He was a member of the Palestine Bar and a member of many Bar associations in the Arab World.

He represented the Arab Higher Committee for Palestine in New York City 1947-1948. He was a Representative of The League of Arab States in Latin America, with an office in Buenos Aires, Argentina 1956-1957, with the rank of Minister Plenipotentiary.

For the last 40 years of his life Issa Nakhleh was representing the Arab Higher Committee for Palestine in New York City. He attended more than forty sessions of the United Nations General Assembly and made more than fifty speeches in the Special Political Committee of the United Nations on the Problem of Palestine.

Issa Nakhleh is the author of the Encyclopedia of the Palestine Problem in two volumes, which is the subject of this website. It has 41 Chapters and 1091 pages, with voluminous footnotes and 60 pages of photos. It deals with the ancient and modern history of Palestine, the political and religious questions and all United Nations Resolutions and the Principles of International Law and Justice relating to the Palestine Question.

He was a member of ASIL (American Society of International Law) and the International Law Association of London. He was a Panelist about Self-Determination in the Case of Palestine in the 82nd Annual Meeting of ASIL, April 30-23, 1988. He took part in a panel about the Israeli – Palestinian Dispute in the Annual Conference of the American Bar Association held in Chicago in August, 1990.

Issa Nakhleh was a Legal Advisor to a number of Arab Delegations to the United Nations.

See also

The illegitimate State of Israel: Plan Dalet – Master Plan for the Conquest of Palestine

WALID KHALIDI, Journal of Palestine Studies, 1988

1 Comment

Filed under Canada, History, Palestine, West Asia (Middle East)

One response to “The Illegitimate State of Israel (I): Zionist Terrorism and Crimes in Palestine – 1939-1945

  1. Pingback: The Illegitimate State of Israel (I): Zionist Terrorism and Crimes in Palestine – 1939-1945 — Tony Seed’s Weblog – New Human New Earth Communities

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